Thursday, January 30, 2020

Genetically Engineered Foods Essay Example for Free

Genetically Engineered Foods Essay Genetically engineered or genetically modified foods are foods that are simply the result of alteration in the original genes of an organism such as a plant or an animal in order to blot out a characteristic or trait of the original organism. Because this involves the transfer of genes, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s) are also known as transgenic organisms (Robert Sacerich-GMO, Genetically Modified Foods and Conspiracy Theories). GE foods can be contrasted with organic foods which are basically foods which undergo a ‘non-synthetic’ method of processing before distribution to the public. This issue holds immense global importance because it is considered to be an alternative to solving the World Hunger crisis by supplying GE foods to countries with an inadequate supply of food (Anup Shah GE Technologies will solve world hunger; Jeffrey Heit, MD-Genetically Engineered Foods ). In this paper, the relative advantages and disadvantages of distributing GE foods to the public will be discovered and weighed. The notion of GE technology being the sole alternative to solving World Hunger will also be investigated along with the prospect of using organic food instead of GE food. In the article, Is GE food safe?, Anup Shah argues that although there is a possibility the use of GE foods can be beneficial to the general public, it cannot be said that this will last forever. The importance of this dilemma is being measured by the fact that there is absolutely no scientific proof at the moment to predict the effects of these crops in the foreseeable future, though we might know a great deal about their initial benefits to health and industry. David C. Pack agrees with this point of view and states that man has tampered with the very core of our food supply as part of the continuing quest to â€Å"out-do† God. He goes on to talk about the ‘unpredictability’ of altering genes. Stating in an example that certain genes from a flounder—a fish—have been inserted into tomatoes in order to give them a longer shelf life and that splicing genetic segments of one species into the genes of another could never occur naturally, he goes on to measure the importance of this issue by comparing data from original research work that had been carried out to determine the relative advantages of ‘golden rice’ and ‘soybeans’ compared to the regular varieties available in the market (David C. Pack -Genetically Engineered Foods Why the Controversy?). Jeffrey Heit, MD, in Genetically Engineered Foods confirms that that the use of GE foods might entail a cheap and efficient industrial  system but the public might not benefit from it the way we think it will. For instance, the use of peanut genes in tomatoes might adversely affect people allergic to peanuts and tomatoes being irreplaceable ingredients in almost all kinds of curry based foods aggravate the situation. On the other hand, some authors like Amy Norton argue that Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness and, because it dampens immune system function, leaves children more vulnerable to becoming severely ill from infections. If all children in deprived areas were given enough vitamin A, up to 2.7 million deaths could be prevented each year according to statistics. Genetically engineered capsules rich in vitamin A could be provided to the children in the aforementioned deprived areas. UNICEF has a program to give young children vitamin A capsules twice a year (one capsule is good for a six-month supply of the vitamin). A range of foods naturally contain vitamin A or vitamin A precursors from liver, fish oil and eggs to spinach, carrots, mango and red peppers. But again, those foods may either be locally unavailable, depend on season, or be priced beyond what most families in developing nations can afford (Amy Norton- Genetically modified rice a good vitamin A source 14; Janice Jones- Advantages Disadvantages of Organic Foods). In another article the author, Bryan Walsh talks about the relationship between ‘humane eggs’ and the way the laying hens are brought up or bred. He hints at the possibility of there being something worse than genetic engineering at hand, which is the way animals are brought up in farms, more specifically chickens. Hence, if such a relationship exists then there seem to be more pressing matters at hand than just the apparent side-effects of GE foods (Bryan Walsh-Vital Farms: Raising the Ultra-Organic Egg). Christie Wilcox adopts a different approach by targeting some of the myths held by people in favor of organic farming as opposed to genetically engineered farming. She talks about how pesticides are used abundantly in organic farming, how organic food is not healthier than GE food and how it is not ideal for the environment; ideas that are common amongst the general public about organic food (Christie Wilcox Myth busting 101: Organic Farming Conventional Agriculture). Backing up the aspect that genetically engineered foods are unsafe and should not be distributed to the general public since their after effects have not yet been discovered, Anup Shah states in an article how worldwide polls indicate a high public demand of labeling GE food so as to  enable the public to choose their preference of food. She points out that any failure to do so implies that the public is ignorant. Is it ‘justified’ to keep the public in the dark just because we think the public is too ignorant to grasp the significance of GE food? On the other hand, is it okay to not label food as genetically engineered or not genetically engineered because of the growing apprehension that there will be competition between GE based and non GE based food companies? ( Anup Shah- Public Concerns and Protests on GE Food). While some believe that genetically engineered foods are generally regarded as safe. There has been no adequate testing, however, to ensure complete safety. There are no reports of illness or injury due to genetically engineered foods (Jeffrey Heit, MD- Genetically engineered foods). On the very other end, some people believe that genetically engineered technology is our only hope in abating the ongoing World Hunger problem. However, some people disagree. The idea that genetically engineered technologies can solve world hunger is ‘unreliable’. It might have the ‘potential’ to abet the ‘developing’ nations in fighting the food crisis but it is amongst the many other alternatives present. A significant number of people in the third world countries are unable to get food because it is expensive, not because it is unavailable. As we can see, the issue of a country’s economy is closely tied with the world hunger problem in this case (Anup Shah- GE Technologies will solve world hunger). There are various questions we need to ask ourselves if we want to determine the ‘safety’ GE food to human beings. In the event that this technology achieves its current aim, who will benefit more, people in need or the people who need more? If we are not able to predict the potential side effects of genetically engineered food, is it safe to miss this one chance to revert poverty or even world hunge r for that matter? If not, then will not taking the leap be worth it in the long run? One reason why GE technology is being given the go-ahead is that there is a lot of money and profit involved in this. Hence from a business perspective it is more favorable, for example to produce crops that can be resistant to your pesticides (so that you can apply more of them). Keeping this perspective in mind, is it moral to jeopardize the prospect of hunger free countries? Does the expression man tampering with nature also apply to scenarios in which Genetic engineering has helped the human race develop the food market? (David C. Pack-Genetically  Engineered Foods Why the Controversy? David C. Pack) The author mentions how the cross breeding of seeds needs to be prevented so as to prevent any food anomalies in the industry. Considering how different animals like cows and buffaloes are cross-bred, how justified is it to combine and merge the habits of different animals who are otherwise different in various aspects? Whereas the problem of â€Å"World Hunger† is concerned, if it cannot be solved by GE crops and is linked to poverty instead, will the eradication of poverty solve the predicament of world hunger? If hunger is an effect of poverty where poverty is a political and economic issue then politics influences how it is produced; who it is produced by and for what purposes it is produced. David C. Pack would also agree: â€Å"Even the problem of world hunger cannot be solved using this technology since the yield of GM crops is even lesser than that of natural (regular) crops† (David C. Pack -Genetically Engineered Foods Why the Controversy?). In conclusion, nothing can be said with absolute certainty about the pros and cons of using this kind of technology but what can be done in this field is research in order to determine the magnitude of change it is capable of delivering in the long run. References †¢Alexandra Sifferlin -California fails to pass genetically modified foods labeling initiative †¢Amy Norton Genetically modified rice a good vitamin A source †¢Anup Shah -Is GE Food Safe? †¢Anup Shah -GE Technologies will solve world hunger †¢Anup Shah -Public Concerns and Protests on GE Food †¢Bryan Walsh -Vital Farms: Raising the Ultra-Organic Egg

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Essay --

The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, critique the effects of private property, division of labor, and capitalism. With the industrial revolution in full swing, Marx argues history is a progressive process of â€Å"the struggle of men to realize their full human potentialities† (Berlin 118). The transformation from feudal to capitalist societies is the beginning of â€Å"the story of man’s alienation in his life as a producer† (Reader, 66). In the Manuscripts, Marx discusses human nature and four types of alienation with which he uses as a platform to argue that estrangement from labour, estranges species from man and makes man individualistic. First and foremost, human nature, as described by Marx in the form of species being, is the understanding that the self is social and lives for the purpose of the species. It is human nature to realize full human potential. Hence, unlike animals, humans have a will and consciousness, which allows for freedom of physical need and ability to produce. Marx defines nature as man’s â€Å"direct means of life [as well as] the material, the object, and the instrument of his life activity† (Reader, 75). Nature is thus the means of both survival and invention. In this respect, humans are capable of shaping nature and therefore creating new wants and desires along with new outlooks and relationships towards nature and the people around them. Though, because needs are beyond survival, the immediate need of nature is lost and alien. Moreover, this human capacity to invent and produce creates division of labor. Berlin declares that the division of labor increases productivity and thus creates wealth beyond immediate needs. Therefore, the manifestation of excess accumulation is withheld from the laborers ... ...are alienated from the product that is given to the species. In other words, â€Å"Capitalism, under which the labour power of human beings is bought and sold, and the workers are treated merely as sources of labour, is plainly a system which distorts the truth about what men are and can be, and seeks to subordinate history to a class interest†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Berlin, 133). In conclusion, the Manuscripts of 1844 connect Marx’s earlier philosophical work to his future as a political economist. He describes how capitalism, a necessary stepping-stone, is a system that creates large disparities between two classes: the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The division of labor during the industrial revolution produces various forms of alienation for the workers of the proletariat. The result of this estrangement is the deviation of man from his human essence, or in other words species being.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Airtel Marketing Strategy

Integrated Marketing Communications Group-8, Sec-C Ajit, Anuj, Prateek, Rohit, Vaibhav AIRTEL: Evolution ? ? ? ? Founded: 7th July 1995 First mobile phone company in the world to outsource everything except marketing and sales and finance operates in 20 countries across South Asia, Africa and the Channel Islands The largest cellular service provider in India 4P+2P+3P for AIRTEL ? 4P’s ? Product: Airtel is the fifth largest telecom operator in the world with about 230. 8 million subscribers across 19 countries ? It provides mobile, fixed telephony as well as broadband and subscription television services Airtel won 3G licenses in 13 telecom circles of India ? Product differentiation is limited so main USP is uninterrupted services and troubleshooting support ? ? Price: Price in the telecomm industry are close to similar, hence main focus is on customized payment plans ? User is free to choose between plans which favor cheaper SMS? s or calls ? Pay-per-second of usage v/s Pay-pe r-minute of usage is the latest attraction ? 4P+2P+3P for AIRTEL ? 4P’s ? Promotion: ? Promotions are usually in multiple formats as discussed further in slides Main focus is connectivity, customized plans as well as dependable network ? Place: ? Airtel has separate plans for each of the regions ? Rural customers get more support and focus is on basic services ? Urban customers are main targets for value added services and accordingly Airtel designs its product offerings and communication plans 4P+2P+3P for AIRTEL ? 2P’s ? People: ? Involvement of people with Airtel has increased with campaigns like â€Å"har ek dost zaroori hota hai† ? Final offerings are also highly customized to friend group discounts and so on ? Pack Design: Pack design is kept red to re-inforce Airtel Brand ? Description of Plans is also evident 4P+2P+3P for AIRTEL ? 3P’s ? Peer -to-peer: ? High rate of communication to increase peer-to-peer interaction and reviews especially in rece nt stages ? Personalization: ? Personalization is constantly on rise especially with value- added-services ? Participation: ? Airtel has tried to conduct contest every now and then to maximize customer participation but due to high brand clutter it is difficult Media Vehicles ? ? ? ? ? ? Above the line Advertising ? Television ? Radio Print Media ? Out-of-home ? Cinema Below the line Advertising ? Trade Scheme ? Consumer offer ? In-shop and shop-front activities Direct Marketing Events Buzz Digital Communication Ad Agencies ? Creative Agency- JWT India ? ? ? ? Airtel ended its 15-year-long relationship with creative agency, Rediffusion – Y&R on Aug, 2010. Rediffusion has handled the brand since its inception in 1995 The Airtel account is worth Rs 400 crore in terms of ad spends This also led to change in their logo Madison Media handles ? ? The media duties for Airtel for more than five years nowIt also handles out-of-home and digital for the brand too Airtel TV Commercials T V Ad Campaigns by Airtel ? â€Å"Har ek friend zaroori hota hai† ? Purpose: ? The commercial for Airtel aims to make the brand trendier for the youth, while attempting not to alienate its older target audience set ? To position Airtel as a brand that embodies friendship, and helps all sorts of friends connect with one another ? TV Advertisement analysis: ? The commercial depicts different kinds of friends one has, and how the presence of each one is necessary in some way or the other ?A jingle penned by film lyricist Amitabh Bhattacharya, makes use of ‘Hinglish' and popular youth lingo, and has the story of different categories of friends, such as the one who wakes one up during the wee hours for help, or another who may give you company during your financial crunch days ? The jingle ends with ‘Har ek friend zaroori hota hai', and with the message that Airtel keeps one connected to their friends TV Ad campaigns by Airtel ? ? ? ? ? ? ? â€Å"Dil jo chaahe paas laa ye† â€Å"Baat karne se hi baat banti hai† â€Å"Do airtel bajenge to tarakki main char chand lag jaenge† â€Å"Dil jo chahe pass laye† Kuch bandhan atoot hote hain, jaise Airtel ka network† â€Å"Airtel internet 3G par† â€Å"Express yourself † †Har ek friend zaroori hota hai† Ad â€Å"Do airtel bajenge to tarakki main char chand lag jaengeâ€Å" Ad â€Å"Dil jo chahe pass laye† Ad ATL-TV ? ? ? It creates Pervasiveness, allows Airtel to be in the eyes of the audience all the time Even though the audience is not obligated to pay heed to the advertisements, the high creativity quotient of the Airtel Ads makes it virtually impossible for the audience to turn a blind eye to them The Ads are very high on the use of imagery and music ATL-TV ? ? ? The genius of the Oscar winning music director A.R. Rahman is the man behind the catchy tune Airtel advertises more on its brand and its values than its products and services Mo st ads just establish the value and beliefs of Airtel than establishing its services like mobile, telephone, or broadband ATL-TV ? ? The likes of Sachin Tendulkar, Shah Rukh Khan, Saif Ali Khan, Kareena Kapoor, Vidya Balan, A R Rahman have all been brand ambassadors of Airtel at some point or the other One of the key reasons for the lasting impact of the Airtel ads is the reinvention of the content displayed TV (Sponsorship) ? ? Leading sponsor of Kaun Banega Crorepati Airtel subscribers were given a special chance to directly enter KBC ? Participation to the show was only restricted to the Airtel subscribers and BSNL/MTNL landline users for the first couple of seasons. Sponsor of Indian Idol ? Airtel subscribers got an exclusive chance to enter the show TV (Sponsorship) ? ? BCCI has awarded the series sponsorship rights of all international cricket matches played in India to Bharti Airtel for the period 2010-2013 On 9 May 2009, Airtel signed a major deal with Manchester United Foot ball Club TV (Sponsorship) ? ? In 2009, Airtel had signed a three-year deal orth Rs 150 crore with official tournament broadcaster ESPN Star Sports for the title sponsorship of the T20 league. Airtel signed a deal to be title sponsor the inaugural Formula One Indian Grand Prix during the 2011 season Print Media Radio ? Bharti Airtel is among the top two advertiser on radio in India (1% share) ? Promotional ads released by Airtel on radio: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Mobile recharge Score kya hua? Aaj ka kya plan hai? EMI Airtel World Cup Pack Airtel happy Recharge Airtel Minimum Recharge Marathon Airtel – radio ad jingle Consumer Sales Promotions ? ? ? ? ? â€Å"Friendz† pre-paid plan for youth Ladies Special† plan â€Å"Seniors plan† for discounts to senior citizens Executive Corporate Plans â€Å"Family Celebrations offer† – Special discounts in Call rates & SMS services Promotional Campaigns ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Airtel Jai Hind AD Campaign Leadership campaig n Quality Time Campaign Magic Dalo Say Hello Launch campaign Magic Hai to Mumkin Hai campaign Call Karo Sona Jeeto campaign Promotions: Health Campaigns ? ? ? ? Airtel and Wockhardt hospitals together launched a â€Å"Good Health† campaign to mark World Health Day on April 7 Comprised two health check-ups at discount of 75% Post-paid subscribers of Airtel could avail theWockhardt master health check up at Rs 799 against a original cost of Rs 3200 Also available as part of the campaign was the Wockhardt Heart Check at Rs 499, aginst Rs 2400 Grameen Mobile Puratchi: Rural Markets ? ? ? This scheme was for more than 45 lakh society members of IKSCL (IFFCO Kisan Sanchar Coopreative ltd) Farmers had five free Value Added Services under this scheme. The farmers had five free voice messages on mandi prices, farming techniques, weather forecasts, dairy farming, animal husbandry, rural health initiatives on a daily basis The pack for farmers ranged between Rs 1299 andRs 4000 along wit h the mobile phone. Direct Marketing ? Direct marketing techniques used: ? Email Marketing ? Display Ads, Social Media sites ? Location based marketing tools, QR Codes ? Telemarketing to customers Events (1/2) ? To reach their target audiences, Airtel has sponsored various TV programmes like ? Big Boss ? Indian Idol ? Super Singer ? Indian Sangeet awards ? Bol Baby Bol Events (2/2) ? Airtel has sponsored various events like ? Indian Grand Prix 2011 ? Champions League T20 ? Delhi Half Marathon ? Border-Gavaskar Trophy, other cricket tours ? Indian Fantasy League ? Indian Golf festival Buzz ? ? ?Launch of Blackberry, tie up with RIM Indian Grand Prix 2011 Social Networking sites ? Facebook, ? Twitter Airtel Simulator Challenge Airtel Out of Home Advertising – Hoardings ? ? ? ? Launching 360 degree campaign, spread over 43 days, rolled out in metros, mini metros in association with Madison media plus group Want to make the brand the part of every day life of costumer. Depict Air tel as youthful, vibrant &dynamic brand Gantries, bus shelters pole, neon's, traffic timers, unipoles, dropdowns, public utility branding, station branding etc are the form of advertisements involved Airtel Out of Home Advertising – Transit Medium,Street Furniture ? ? ? ? To communicate from door to door Seek more attention of the customer Key nodal points of market and high traffic points, TG dwelling and the concentration area Sky ballon branding, boat branding, Cycle branding, Airtel Product Placement Months before the announcement of the August 22nd iPhone launch, fanatics in India were screaming for their shot at iPhone 3G mania. You would think from the crowds in the photo that the Airtel iPhone launch in Mumbai, India was a raging success. Think again! One cult of iPhone follower present at Airtel's testical festival knows otherwise.Airtel Branded Entertainment ? ? ? Way to create buzz The ads can be flashed in between the various highly watched TV serials or can be sp onsors of some big movies Cricket matches, Super star awards, Dance, singing competitions Airtel Sensory Branding ? Through its signature tune ? Its unique color and logo ? Having celebrities like Sachin Tendulkar and A. R. Rahman Digital Communication: Web 2. 0 Digital Communication: Web 2. 0 Digital Communication: Web 2. 0 Digital Communication: Web 2. 0 CSR Initiatives ? ? ? Initiative of opening â€Å"Airtel Ashiana† for underprivileged children at the Mohali office of AirtelTied up with an NGO to distribute daily surplus food to needy children â€Å"Airtel Experience Centre by Access MO† for the benefit of visually impaired people as well as people from deprived section of society CSR Initiatives ? ? Bharti foundation, the philanthropic arm of Bharti Enterprises was established in 2000 with a vision to help underprivileged children and young people of our country realise their potential In the process of setting up a 1000 â€Å"Satya Bharti Schools† to deli ver high quality education to underprivileged children in the deepest rural pockets The First Mover Advantage 1.Electronic recharge 2. Hello Tunes 3. Airtel Live! 4. Portfolio Manager 5. Song Catcher 6. Easy Music 7. Black berry handsets 8. M-cheques Airtel- Retail Media ? ? ? ? Presence of recharging options through an extensive network of small stores/big retail stores/small or big retail shops/pan shops etc Easy way to recharge option by keeping a specific number digit for a particular type of recharge option Availability of new sim cards free of cost to increase the customer base at various outlets Airtel owned stores and Airtel galleries present in every district to address customer queries more responsiblySocial, Ethical & Legal Issues ? ? VAS Fraud ? There has been lot of criticism about Airtel for its unauthorized VAS activation ? Many of its services were activated automatically according to a complaint ? Several thousands of users were falsely billed ? In return Airtel lau nched STOP/START 121 services for such issues ? Alternatively, one can sign up on the â€Å"Do Not Disturb† list to avoid all telemarketing calls and SMS Controversy ? Bharti Airtel(India) was issued notices by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India(TRAI) for violation of Mobile number portability(MNP) Regulations. According to TRAI, it had received complains from customers regarding wrong rejection of porting requests by telecom operators Social, Ethical & Legal Issues ? ? Silcon Concept has dragged Airtel to the Federal High Court over allegedly making a publication to the claimant? s customers and subscriber by means of voice call, text messages or SMS informing them that the claimant is a band of fraudster (Oct, 2010) The CCC of ASCI has concluded that Airtel? s advertisement (campaign ‘Dil Titli„) is misleading, as the viewer of the TV commercial is led to believe that Airtel Digital TV has superior picture uality because of MPEG4 or DVBS2 technology (Jan, 201 0) ‘Dil Titli‘campaign Social, Ethical & Legal Issues ? ? ? The AIRTEL Digital TV advertisement offering ‘Free Regional Pack for life„ was accused of being misleading as the DTH licence was valid only up to May 2018 (Feb, 2010) The CCC of ASCI found the claim made in the SMS ad that Airtel Digital TV Recorder is High Definition capable as misleading BSNL has accused Airtel of unfair trade practices over the private operator's claim that it is the only mobile telecom service provider in Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) (Dec, 2004) Thank You

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Searchers By John Ford - 1912 Words

John Ford’s 1956 film, The Searchers, is a classic Western tale set in the staked plains, post-Civil War era. Like most of John Ford’s Western films, The Searchers is also filmed in Monument Valley, Arizona/Utah. John Ford first introduces Ethan Edwards (John Wayne) returning on horseback to his brother, Aaron Edwards’s (Walter Coy) house three years after the Civil War. Ethan is introduced to Martin Pawley (Jeffery Hunter), the adopted son of Mr. and Mrs. Edwards. The film moves forward when Rev. Captain Clayton (Ward Bond) volunteers Ethan, Marty, and a group of men to search for the Jorgensen’s missing cattle. The search turns its tracks when the men realize that the Edwards family have been killed by the Comanche Indians, and Debbie (Natalie Wood) and Lucy (Pippa Scott) are taken by Scar. Although Ethan is the anti-hero, him and Marty are the protagonists of The Searchers. Both Ethan and Marty’s lives are flipped upside down and are now on a jou rney to save Debbie and Lucy. The antagonist, Scar, is possibly considered Ethan’s alter ego because they share several similarities. Throughout the film, Ethan and Marty face many challenges accepting their background and issues. The overall meaning of the film is to let go of the past and accept what the future has to offer; John Ford’s use of paradigm, style, and themes drives the overall meaning throughout the film. Notably, John Ford’s paradigm moves the overall meaning of the film by the structure of the events which takeShow MoreRelated`` Song Of Solomon Written By Toni Morrison And Film The Searchers Directed By John Ford1535 Words   |  7 PagesMaya Angelou once said â€Å"Prejudice is a burden that confuses the past, threatens the future and renders the present inaccessible†. This sentiment is apparent in the novel Song of Solomon written by Toni Morrison and the film The Searchers directed by John Ford. In both these works of fiction prejudice is an underlying theme of the central plot. 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The Searchers shows John Wayne as a great man loyal to his family who will do anything to protect them. McCarthy shows the cowboy John Grady as a boy who wants to chase the dream of the life of a cowboy. These differences are very similar to the more major contrast between the novel and the movies’ views on the myth of