Monday, September 30, 2019
The Renaissance developed a new and unique form of politics referred to as Despotism. Despotism is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. The single ruling entity may be an individual, as in an autocracy, or it may be a group, as in an oligarchy. The great Renaissance historian John Addington Symonds refers to the 14th and 15th Centuries in Italy as the Ã¢â¬Å"Age of the Despots. Ã¢â¬ It was under the tyrannies, in the midst of all the wars and revolutions, that the Italians were given the chance to develop their peculiar individuality. This individuality determined the qualities of the Renaissance and affected Europe as a whole. Italy, due to their unique form of politics, was able to lead the way in the education of Western races, and was the first to distinguish Classical and Medieval life. The conditions that led to this new form of Political government were distinctive to Italian urban life. By the 14th Century, Italy was divided into many principalities surrounding city-States. The cities were an integral part of life in Italy due to commerce, and Italians were the first to reap the benefits of new and increasing trade due to their favorable geographic position in the Mediterranean Sea. Because there was a constant political and class struggle in the cities, Italy lacked a central authority of power. In cities such as Florence, Pisa, and Milan, the age-old rival between Pope and Emperor played itself out. The Guelph party supported the Pope, while the Ghibbiline party supported the Emperor. Civil wars were fought in the cities and ended with a despotism system of ruling, either with an oligarchy or an autocracy. The forming of these authorities was crucial, because peace is essential for trade, and the surplus wealth from commerce is what led to the growth or art and literature, which began the Renaissance. The despots, who were the powerful rulers during despotism, were not from traditional dynasties, and therefore they reached their positions of power in various other ways. Some were appointed by the Holy Roman Emperor to assert his rule, as was the case for the Visconti of Milan in the 14th Century. Other despots were hired soldiers, who later became rulers of the cities they were hired to protect, as was the case for the Sforzas in Milan in the 15th Century. Some despots were elected Mayor of their towns, some controlled their townÃ¢â¬â¢s elections- as the Medici family in Florence did, and some despots ruled solely because they were the sons and nephews of Popes. Due to their various ways of gaining power, the despot was usually not from a traditional dynasty, and therefore they did not have the traditional loyalty of the people. Each despot had to gain the loyalty of the people either through a winning personality, or by being clever in the political game. The Despotic court had to set its own rules, which were eventually written down in the Book of the Courtier, which became the guide book for the courts of Early Modern Europe. The most important and the most influential work dealing on Despotism is MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s The Prince, and Machiavelli is considered by some to be the father of modern Power Politics. The Italian Renaissance was essentially a mind-set, a collection of powerful attitudes and beliefs. The development of despotism pacified the country from the chaos of their constant civil wars, and allowed them peace, which was essential for trade. As commerce reopened, people began traveling freely, and the level of education began to rise as well as the amount of books that were read. This soon led to an overwhelming growth of literature and art, of which the Renaissance is famous for.
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 8:19 PM
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Everyone not only wants a good friend in their life, but they need one too. Friendships often face a great number of conflicts that may weaken you, or it may do the opposite, make your relationship stronger. A good friend may also be known as a true friend or a best friend that will always be there for you. Having a good friend will keep you going in life, and make you have a brighter smile on days when you are gloomy. They also help you out when you need them the most, and this will help you accomplish certain goals in your life. I have many good friends that I am extremely fortunate to have in my life and I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t trade them for anything else. Most people say that friends do not stay good friends for a long period of time, but that is not true and if you have a good friend you know that is incorrect. First and foremost, a good friend has great number of beneficial qualities and one of them is when everyone walks out on you, they stay with you through everything. You can tell them anything and they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t tell a single soul just to make you feel happy. For instance, I thought I would never be able to explain my secrets to anyone besides my mother, but when I became good friends with a couple of my class mates, I could tell them anything and everything. They do the same back, sometimes we just talk on the phone for ours telling about our days even if we spend these days together. A good friend will always want to talk to you about anything, even if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re busy, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just one of the great numbers of things a good friend does for you. They are a marvelous thing to have, and if you do have a good friend you should be very fortunate to have them. Furthermore, if you need help on anything and no one is around to help you, you can always count on your good friends. Having a good friend by your side will help you accomplish extraordinary life goals that you could never imagine achieving. I know for a fact that this is true mainly because I have had this happen to me. One afternoon I was at the local park and I had just realized that I had a enormous test that I had to take the next day. I knew exactly who to call, my good friend Candy. She came and picked me up and we went to her house. She had all the notes out and ready to study. I knew I could count on her to help me with this test. So we studied for a couple of hours, and then I went home. The next day I was ready for the test and I knew I got every answer correct. I was very thankful to have my good friend to always help me when I need it and no one else is around. I decided I would always study with her.
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 8:49 PM
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Rudolf Laban (1879-1958) is considered to be one of the founders of European Modern Dance. He was a dancer, choreographer and movement theoretician. In his new ideas on dance notation and strong belief that dance should be available for everyone; he has transformed modern dance and dance education. After refusing to Join the army, as his father had planned for him, aged 33 he moved to Munich as an artist. His previous study of architecture in Paris led to him to develop an interest for the moving body and its spaces.It was in Germany he furthered this interest by spending his summer trying to redesign Bewegungskunst (the art of movement). In 1919 Rudolf Laban set up two Dance Theatre Company's, a movement class for armatures, opened a main dance school, wrote articles and books, performed himself and also choreographed. In 1927 he moved to Berlin and opened the Choreographisches Institut and 3 years later he was appointed director of movement and choreographer of the Prussian State T heatres in Berlin.After failing to Join the Ã¢â¬ËNazi way of life' in 1936, his name and work was destroyed by the Government Propaganda Ministry whilst at the height of his career. So in 1938 he took refuge in Britain. When Rudolf Laban was sixty he began to introduce dance study methods such as Laban's analysis (splitting the analysis of dance into 4 simple categories: action, space, dynamic, relationship) with the help of Lisa Ullmann. Then finally in 1946 he opened the Movement Studio in Manchester.Rudolf Laban (1879-1958) is considered to be one of the founders of European Modern Dance. He was a dancer, choreographer and movement theoretician. In his new ideas on dance notation and strong belief that dance should be available for everyone; he has transformed modern dance and dance education. opened the Movement Studio in Manchester. and also choreographed. In 1927 ne moved to Berlin and opened t turtnered this interest by spending his summer trying to redesign egungskunst
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 7:40 PM
Friday, September 27, 2019
Sabmiller - Case Study Example From the above tabular form, it is apparent that more than pursuing organic growth, SAB Miller has concentrated on consolidation and expansion; the latter achieved through acquisitions and strategic alliances. Porter's five forces model helps in analysing the forces or aspects that influence an industry. This analysis, however, is relevant for a particular industry and not in assessing the performance at the company level. This model thus helps in studying the effects of the external factors that drive a company's performance and output in terms of the other elements operating in the same industry. The five forces constituting the model - competitive rivalry, threat of new entry, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers and threat of substitutes. All these forces ultimately affect the profitability of the company. However, these forces that affect the profitability of a company make up the business environment of any organization and are beyond the sphere of influence of the company's control. So, it is important for the company to develop and adopt tactics to combat these competitive forces and keep a tab on them to foresee the upcoming trends and accordingly brace thems elves with suitable strategies. Following are the forces described individually. (Ehmke C. et al, September 2004) Competitive Rivalry- The main competitor of SAB Miller was Anheuser-Busch.
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 6:29 PM
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Surrealism and 'True' Reality in Quentin Tarantino's Films - Essay Example According to the findings, it can, therefore, be said that Tarantino directed the films in such a way that they were explicitly more or less about redemption. Also artistically, they are postmodern. Such that they tend to blend genres and are also highly allusive. In both the films, the characters struggle to become Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ people and live a Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ life without succeeding. This is because the redemption they seek is achieved through suffering and even death, as in the case of the gangsters in Reservoir Dogs. Hence, there is no desire to shed the uniforms and become Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ people.Ã Tarantino aims at reflecting a postmodern sensibility about an ability to know and understand the world and also, about the value and significance that every personÃ¢â¬â¢s life has and also their actions. The films illustrate the Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ world as the civilian world, one without struggle and any need for redemption. In order for one to become a Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â ¬ person, they needed to shed their uniform. However,Ã some removed their uniforms without any intentions of redemption.
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 9:26 PM
SAM 400 UNIT 5 - Essay Example One of the characteristics of this group is having a focused leader who is elected through a democratic and fair process. An effective group should have a visionary leader who has the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s interest at heart. The leader shifts from on person to the other, at the end of every year, during the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s general meeting where new leaders are elected into the office. The elected leader should aggressively seek for votes from the members without any intimidation .If the members feel that they can entrust the groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ mission in the hands of a specific leader, then he or she is duly elected. Our leader portrays good leadership skills and ensures that unity and coherence is achieved within the group. The mission of the Green Community Groups is to promote environment conservation within the school compound. Our vision is to see that environmentally friendly practices are encouraged and adopted by the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s community. To achieve this goal, all the members led by our leader work alongside the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s administration and other environment agencies to facilitate environmentally friendly activities such as tree planting and advocacy initiatives. The activities to be undertaken are agreed upon by all the members, every one contribution is highly valued and decisions are reached through a consensus (Manning & Curtis 79). The roles within the group are shared and well balanced. There are smaller groups within the club that are designated various projects to steer head. Within these small groups every member has a role to play .This characteristic creates a sense of belonging and worth among all the members, there are no minority members as everyone feels relaxed and involved. To facilitate coherence within the group, effective communication is highly encouraged. Our group communicates face to face, during meetings, through the clubÃ¢â¬â¢ social site called Ã¢â¬Å"The GreenersÃ¢â¬ and through the use of mobile phones. Every member is aware of the ClubÃ¢â¬â¢s
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 5:43 AM
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Utilisation of Electrical Energy - Assignment Example The average consumption of electric energy around the world is approximately 19 % of the total electric energy produced. This calls for the specialized improvement in the lighting efficiency to save energy which translates to conservation of the environment. Different environment requires different lighting luminaries. The choice of a specific lighting luminary in a given environment depends on several factors. Some of the factors that influence the choice of lighting luminaires in given environments include the availability of natural light, the intensity of light required, the availability of energy sources Ã¢â¬â in this case electricity Ã¢â¬â among others. This paper discusses the common discharge luminary in different environments. The chosen environments include office building, an indoor Ã¢â¬â 5 Ã¢â¬âa Ã¢â¬â side Ã¢â¬â pitch, and Cul-de-sac street lighting Office Building For efficiency lighting in an office building, there must be sufficient source of light. This implies that the lighting luminaries used must have a high light intensity. Since the light is always switched on, the luminary must have the capacity to save energy. Considering this factors among others, the best luminary suited for an office building is Fluorescent Lamp. This is the best choice due to the following advantages: Fluorescent lights are cheap Fluorescent lamps generally have a very good luminous efficacy Fluorescent lamps have a very long lamp life (Ranges from 10 000 hours to 16000 hours). This implies less maintenance costs They come in large varieties of CCT and CRI Fluorescent Lamp Construction, Operation and Associated Circuitry The associated circuitry of fluorescent lamp is shown in figure 1 below. Figure 1. The associated circuitry of a fluorescent lamp. Construction and Operation In a fluorescent lamp, light is predominantly produced by fluorescent powders which are activated by ultra Ã¢â¬â violet radiation originating from mercury. This type of ligh t source is characterized by low Ã¢â¬â pressure gas discharge light source. Physically, the lamp is composed of a long tubular pipe that contains an electrode on both sides. This tubular pipe is filled with low pressure mercury vapour which is enhanced with an inert gas, in this case, argon, for starting. The emission of the light occurs in the ultraviolet region. The wavelength of the energy emitted falls in the range of 254 Ã¢â¬â 185 nanometres. The ultraviolet radiation produced is, then, converted into light by the phosphor layer which is coated on the inside of the tube. Most of the initial photon energy, 65 %, is lost by the dissipation since one ultraviolet photon produces only one visible photon. Moreover, the final spectral of the light that is distributed can be varied. This is by different combinations of phosphors. The CCT (Correlated Colour Temperature) of fluorescent light varies from 2700 Kelvin to 6500 kelvin. On the other hand, the colour rendering indices var ies from 50 to 95. Different fluorescent lamps have different luminous efficacy depending on their construction. The latest fluorescent lamp has a luminous efficacy of 100 lm/W. This excludes the ballast losses. The operation of a fluorescent lamp is shown in figure 2 below. Figure 2. The operation of a fluorescent lamp. Fluorescent lamps have an ever increasing current. This is harmful since it can destroy the lamp (National Industrial Pollution Control Council. Electric and Nuclear Sub-Council, United States. Dept. of Commerce, 1972). Thus, to correct this, it is designed in such a way that it limits the lamp current. This is seen in instances where it displays the negative voltage to counteract the ever increasing c
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 8:38 AM
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Macroeconomic - Essay Example The shift of scarce resources from the private to the public sector would result in a budget deficit because the government would have to increase the interest rates in order to capture the attention of the population to buy the debt. An increase in the government spending in particular areas can also be an instrumental way of promoting technological innovation, the skills of the workforce and the social infrastructure. For instance an increase in government spending on transport infrastructure will not only have a cumulative effect on the aggregate demand but will also promote productivity and competitiveness (Riley). Likewise, if the government spends more on education, it would have direct effects on the population, producing more educated individuals and a skilled workforce. An increase in the spending of the government would have a direct impact on the aggregate demand. Increased government spending would cause an increase in the aggregate demand, which would in turn have an imp act on the entire economy. The increased AD would culminate in the rise in the output as well as the prices. Moreover over a long period of time, the increased government expenditure causes a fiscal policy multiplier, characteristic of increased consumer spending (Mankiw 484).
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 7:30 AM
Monday, September 23, 2019
Gotham City the residents reported that the street prostitution Discussion - Assignment Example the offender, suppression of any opportunity that the offender may have and hardening the situation making it difficult for the offender to do crime(Ikerd, 2010). The scenario provide us with an opportunity to probe some questions; why are the people of Gotham city not bothered with prostitution in the area? Why do the residences indulge in prostitution? What are the factors that make prostitution easy? After answering the questions, clear and well planned method can be employed in curbing the act. Some specific methods like; using informants, sweep of the area, saturation patrol, profile interview, operation indent and installing visible cameras can help in curbing the act. These are secondary methods, and the primary method is the best. It involves gathering intelligence unto why the community members indulge in the practice, then that the primary drive is handled. The local business people should be kept in mind while handling this matter, because some may argue that prostitution is what is making them have customers, and perhaps that is the reason people of Gotham are not concerned with prostitution. In conclusion there must be professional analysis to help in managing crime without infringing with anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 6:21 AM
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Using Bicycles as an Alternative to Automobiles Essay Abstract: This paper basically shows the reasons to use the bicycle as an alternative mode of transportation. It will points out the benefits of the use of a bicycle. It will also show what is being done to get rid of the negative aspects of using a bicycle for transportation. Bicycling is one of the fastest growing forms of recreation. People are drawn to it for many reasons, being out in the fresh air, the thrill of speed, the physical challenge, along with many other things. But there can be many more uses for the bicycle. The use that this paper will focus on is transportation. The use of bicycles can greatly improve the economy of a nation. A comparison between the efficiency of the transportation systems of the United Stated and Japan points this out. In 1990 Americans spent 17. 9 percent of the GNP on transportation, whereas the Japanese spent only 10. 79 percent on transportation. This difference of nearly 7 percent, gives the Japanese economy much more money for investing in their future. Our Economy is not the only thing we should worry about, and it is also not the only thing that can be improved by the use of bicycles. There are several major problems that could be drastically reduced by the increased use of bicycles. Traffic would be a lot lighter due to the extremely small size of bicycles. It would also greatly reduce the wear and tear on our roads and highways, and therefore reduce government expenditure. But one of the most serious problems it would reduce is that of pollution and smog in out larger cities. There are more benefits to biking, though. There are benefits that come at a more personal level. Biking greatly improves ones health. It can be a way to exercise without taking much times out of ones schedule. The time one would spend biking to work serves two important purposes. One, getting to work, but also as a great form of exercise. Improved mobility in crowded situations. In downtown areas, biking to work may actually save time. Cars crawl through congested traffic, while bicyclists ride around it. The time it takes to park a car could also be factored in. Finding a parking space takes time and may be far away, while bikes are easy to lock and can be locked close to any destination. Personal economics are also important. Cars are expensive to own and operate. On top of the high prices for new cars, one must also pay for insurance, fuel, and maintenance. Not only is the price of a new bicycle much lower, they cost almost nothing to operate. Still with all of these benefits, many people choose not to consider a bicycle as a viable form for transportation. People feel that it is to time consuming, to inconvenient, and to dangerous. But there are things that can be done to change these facts. How a city is designed will play a large part in whether or not people choose to use bicycle as a form of transportation. Many of Americas large cities are not very friendly to the bicycle commuter. City streets should be wide enough to have room for a safe sized bike path that is separate from automobiles and pedestrians. This would improve the safety of bicycling. Another method that can be used is traffic calming. Traffic calming is a term that has emerged in Europe to describe a full range of methods to slow cars, but not necessarily ban them, as they move through commercial areas and residential neighborhoods. Traffic calming exists in certain downtown areas as a natural outcome of design initiatives to accommodate sizable special populations. Some the best examples of traffic calming are not in the United States. Traffic calming was originally introduced in the Netherlands and Germany, but is now being put to use in Denmark, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In 1981, Germany set up six traffic-calming demonstration projects in various places with varying density. The initial reports showed that there was a reduction of speed from 23 mph to 12. The traffic volume remained constant, but there was a 60 percent decrease in injuries, and a 43 to 53 percent reduction in fatalities. In a recent survey, most people showed that if conditions where improved, more people use bicycles to commute. Things are being done to make things better. Private organizations are offering incentives and promotions, and our government is also making legislation to improve things. The need for bicycle and pedestrian provisions to be fully integrated into state and local plans and transportation policy documents has assumed even greater significance due to the ISTEA and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. States were not required to have long-range transportation plans until ISTEA was passed, and Metropolitan Planning Organizations have had little or no control over project selection until now. Because of this fact, in the past, State highway agencies have dominated the spending of highway and transportation dollars. Plans developed at the city level would often contain many worthy transit and non-motorized projects. ISTEA makes a number of important changes. Both levels of government are now required to produce annual transportation improvement programs and long range transportation plans. These plans shall provide for the development of transportation facilities (including pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities) which will function as an intermodal transportation system. (Section 1024 (a) and 1025 (a)) State long-range plans are required to have consider strategies for incorporating bicycle transportation facilities and pedestrian walkways in projects where appropriate throughout the state. (Section 1025 (c)(3)) State long-range plans are also required to have a long-range plan for bicycle transportation facilities and pedestrian walkways for appropriate areas of the State, which shall be incorporated into the long-range transportation plan. People need to realize what the over use of automobiles is doing to our country. Our nations wealth is probably the greatest contributor to this problem. Americans generally feel that a car is a necessity and not a luxury. We are also spoiled with some of the lowest gasoline prices in the world. Some suggest an increase in gasoline taxes to drive people towards the use of alternative modes of transportation. Surveys shows that it would influence more people to not drive as frequently. But economists feel when the government imposes an intentional price floor on a common product, it can only hurt the economy. All of these things will help influence people to use alternative modes of transportation. But when it comes down to it, everyone must make a personal choice. Bicycles will probably never be as convenient as automobiles, and in this writers opinion, they shouldnt be. Commuting on a bike is a sacrifice in some ways, but we need to set our priorities straight. No legislation will do that for us. Boulder is probably one of the best place to get into the habit of frequently using a bicycle. In this community bikes are generally a lot more convenient than cars, in pretty much every aspect. Probably more than half of the time, I can get to wherever I want to in less time on a bike than in a car. Not to mention the time saved by not having to find a parking spot. This is accomplished by the use of good bike routes, underpasses, and having the right of way over cars. I use my bike almost daily, whereas I would probably use a car about once a week. It is also a lot more economical to ride a bike than to drive a car, especially on campus. As I already mentioned cars require several expenses, whereas bikes require almost none. Also on campus, if you have a car, you must pay for a parking permit. I plan to use a bicycle whenever and where ever possible. I think that everyone should own a bicycle and a least use it occasionally. I would like to inform other people of how easy it is to use a bicycle for transportation. References 1. United States, Integrating Bicycle and Pedestrian Considerations Into State and Local Transportation Planning (Washington: The Administration, 1994). 2. United States, Transportation Research Record, Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning With Safety Considerations (Washington: Transportation Research Board, 1987) 3. United States, Actions Needed To Increase Bicycle/Moped Use In The Federal Community (Washington: U. S. General Accounting Office, 1981) 4. Mike Hudson, Bicycle Planning (The Architectural Press: London, 1982) 5. National Research Council. Transportation Research Board. Pedestrian Behavior and Bicycle Traffic (Washington: National Academy of Sciences, 1980) 6. National Research Council. Transportation Research Board. Nonmotorized Transportation Around The World (Washington: National Academy Press, 1994) 7. National Research Council. Transportation Research Board. Nonmotorized Transportation Research, Issues, and Use (Washington: National Academy Press, 1995) 8. John T. Doolittle, Integration of Bicycles and Transit (Washington: National Academy Press, 1994) 9. http://www. tnrcc. state. tx. us/air/ms/vexercis. htm 10. http://www. nd. edu/~ktrembat/www-bike/BCY/TryBikeCommute. html.
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 5:12 AM
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloud Computing in Business INTRODUCTION A proceeding stream of information technology innovations is changing the customary business world. Samples incorporate the rise of distributed computing, the development of a portable computerized business stage dependent upon cell phones and netbook machine and not slightest, the utilization of informal communities by directors to attain business goals. The vast majority of these progressions have happened in the last few years. All the while, some old or customary organizations are, no doubt devastated while new organizations are springing up. Data frameworks are establishment for directing business today. In numerous streamlined, survival and even presence is troublesome without far reaching utilization of data engineering. Organizations use data frameworks to accomplish significant targets like playing point and regular preference. KEY IT TERMS Cloud Computing Definitions Ã¢â¬Å"A computing environment where software and storage are provided as an Internet service and are assessed with a Web Browser.Ã¢â¬ (Factual Definition) In my own words, cloud computing is defined as a Web-based application that are stored on remote servers and accessed via the cloud of the internet using a standard Web browser. Cloud Computing refers to a modal of computing in which firms and individuals obtain computing resources and software applications over the internet which is also referred to as the cloud. Hundreds of thousands computers are located in cloud data centers where they can be accessed by desktop computers, notebooks, netbooks and other client machines linked to the internet. Companies like EBay, Amazon, Dell and HP work tremendously; versatile distributed computing focuses that give processing force, information stockpiling and rapid Internet associations with firms that need to keep up their IT frameworks remotely. Based on my IT knowledge, organizations using cloud computing generally do not own the infrastructure; they do not have to make huge investments in their own hardware and software. Instead, they purchase their computing services from remote providers and pay only for the amount of computing power they actually use or are billed on a monthly or annual subscription basis. Advantages and Drawbacks The strength of cloud computing imply that association can depend all the more on telework, remote work and conveyed choice making. This same stage methods firms can outsource more work and depend on businesses as opposed to representative to construct esteem. It likewise implies that organizations can team up with suppliers and clients to make new items or make existing items all the more effectively. Besides that, cloud computing platform emerges as a major business area of innovation. A flexible collection of computers on the internet begins to perform tasks traditionally performed on corporate computers. Every advantage has its disadvantages, therefore cloud computing has some drawbacks. Unless users make provisions for storing their data locally, the responsibility of data storage and control is in the hands of the providers. Some companies worry about the security risks related to entrusting their critical data and system to an outside vendor that also works with other companies. Companies expect their systems to be available 24/7 and 365 days and do not want to suffer any loss of business capability if their infrastructure if their IT infrastructure malfunction. For instance, when AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s cloud went down in July 2008, subscribers were unable to use their system for eight hours. Another limitation of cloud computing is the possibility of making users dependent on the cloud computing provider. Latest Cloud Trending Cloud computing has encountered exponential development throughout the last few years. As of December 2013, very nearly 60 percent of current small-to-medium businesses (SMB) utilization cloud administrations, and 72 percent of these organizations virtualize generous bits of their servers. The development is just anticipated that will expand throughout the following few years. Here are simply a couple of the real present patterns in the business today. Hybrid clouds- Hybrid clouds mists offer a framework that consolidates private cloud security with savvy, capable and adaptable open cloud qualities. Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)- Platform-as-a-service solutions empower business to decrease their IT expenses while expanding requisition advancement through more productive testing and improvement routines. Mobile-Cloud Computing- Growth of Mobile Cloud Computing is the latest trend among smartphones users because itÃ¢â¬â¢s cost-effective and less time consuming. Mobile commerce Definition Ã¢â¬Å"The use of mobile, wireless devices to place orders and conducts businessÃ¢â¬ (factual definition) In my own words, Mobile Commerce is defined as the use of wireless devices, such as hand phones or handheld digital information appliances, to conduct both business-to-consumer and business-to-business electronic commerce transaction over the internet. Based on my understanding on m-commerce, is the fastest growing type of Business-to-Consumer e-commerce although it represent only a small part of all e-commerce. In 2013, there were an estimated 5 billion hand phones subscribers worldwide with highest users are from China and United States. Portable business provisions have taken off for administrations that one time-basic, that speak to individuals moving or that finish an undertaking more productively than different systems. M-commerce is especially popular in Japan, South Korea and other countries with strong broadband infrastructures. For instance, banking and financial services. Banks and credit cards companies are rolling out services that let customers manage their accounts from their mobile devices. Maybank and Public Bank in Malaysia allows their customers to use their smartphones to check account balances, transfer funds and pay bills that makes the life of consumers easier and better. Uses of M-commerce M-commerce is particularly appropriate for area based requisitions, for example, discovering neighborhood lodgings and restaurants, overseeing nearby activity and climate, and giving customized area based showcasing. Hand phones and handhelds are constantly utilized for portable bill installment, keeping money, securities exchanging, transportation timetable redesigns, and downloads of computerized substance, for example, music, recreations, and feature cuts. M-commerce obliges remote entryways and exceptional computerized installment frameworks that can deal with micropayments. M-commerce used as Entertainment Latest emerging smartphones like Samsung, High Tech Computer (HTC), IPhone and Blackberry are quickly turning portable entertainment platforms. Mobile phones services offer downloadable digital games, music and ringtones. More and more handset models combine the features of a cell phone and a portable music player. Users of broadband services from the major wireless vendors can download on-demand video clips, news clips and weather clips. For instance, Astro-on-the-go, Astro IPTV, and MyHyApp TV offered by Astro; features live TV programs, including Fox Sports and Fox Movies. Besides that, film companies are starting to produce shorts films explicitly designed to play on mobile phones. User-generated content is also appearing in mobile-form. Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, YouTube and other social networking sites have versions for mobile devices. M-Commerce Trending The most compelling motivation for this enormous uptick in portable trade is the sheer number of individuals now furnished with cell phones and tablets. Yet there are some paramount ways retailers are likewise driving and saddling the versatile business blast. Local(Malaysia) Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"DurianaÃ¢â¬ , a new Malaysian mobile marketplace app, surpasses the 110,000 listing mark on their platform with 80% of those listings coming from their Malaysian platform after only six short weeks in the market (Business Insider). Foreign Country- Ã¢â¬ËEBay India launches initiative to promote mobile commerceÃ¢â¬â¢. Famous e-commerce website EBay launches mobile commerce in India in order to increase their revenue. Machine cycle Definition Ã¢â¬Å"The instruction phase followed by the execution phaseÃ¢â¬ . In my own words, Machine Cycle usually called fetch-and-execute cycle, fetch-decode-execute cycle, is the fundamental operation cycle of a computer. It is the procedure by which a machine recovers a system direction from its memory, figures out what movements the guideline requires, and completes those activities. This cycle is rehashed persistently by the central processing unit (CPU), from boot up to when the monitor is closed down. Steps of Machine Cycle The steps performed by the computer processor for each one machine dialect direction gained. The machine cycle is a 4 procedure cycle that incorporates reading and interpreting the machine language, executing the code and then storing that code. Therefore, the four steps of machine cycle are as follows:- Fetching the instruction the computer peruses the following project guideline to be executed and any important information into the processor. Decode the instruction- The guideline is decoded and went to the proper processor execution unit. During decoding, the retrieved instruction is translated into a series of computer commands. Execute instruction- The equipment component, now naturally bolstered with a direction and information, does the guideline. Store results- The results that are obtained via information are stored in registers or memory. The time it takes to complete the execution phase (Steps 3 and Steps 4) is called the Execution time or commonly known as E-Time (coated from the text book). Overall Summary of Machine Cycle Each time the CPU executes an instruction, it takes a series of steps. The complete arrangement of steps is known as a machine cycle. A machine cycle could be isolated into two more diminutive cycles. These are instruction cycle and execution cycle. Management Information System (MIS) Definition Ã¢â¬Å"An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices that provides routine information to managers and decision makersÃ¢â¬ . In my own words, Management Information System (MIS) is defined as the study of information system focusing on their use in business and management. The term management information system (MIS) also indicates a specific class of information systems serving middle management. Middle manager needs systems to help monitoring, controlling, decision-making and administrative activities. Therefore, management information system (MIS) will provide the middle managers with reports on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s current performance. This information is used to monitor and control the business and predict the future performance of the company and the employees. Besides that, management information system summarize and report on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s basic operation using data supplied by Transaction Process System (TPS). TPS and MIS relation In the system illustrated by this diagram, three TPS supply summarized transaction data to the MIS reporting system at the end of the time period. Managers gain access to the organizational data through the MIS, which provides them with the appropriate reports. In my own words, based on the diagram, the basic transaction data from Transaction Processing System (TPS) are summarized and compressed to the Management Information System (MIS) at the end of the time period. Today the typical Management Information System (MIS) changes transaction level information from stock, preparation and bookkeeping into Management Information System (MIS) documents that are utilized to give middle managers with accurate reports. The information obtained helps middle managers in decision making process. New in Management Information System Management information system is the most exciting topic in business because of the continual change in technology, management use the technology and their impact of business. New business and industrial appear and old ones decline and successful firms are those that learn how to use the new technologies. Besides that, IPhones and BlackBerrys are not just gadgets or entertainment outlets. They represent new emerging computing platforms based on an array of new hardware and software technologies. More and more business registering is moving from Pcs and desktop machines to these mobile devices. Managers are progressively utilizing these gadgets to arrange work, speak with representatives and give data to choice making. We call these developments the emerging mobile platform. All in all, most MIS use simple routines, such as summaries and comparisons as opposed to sophisticated mathematical models or statistical techniques. (Coated from text-book) Near Field Communication (NFC) Definition Ã¢â¬Å"A very short-range wireless connectivity technology designed for cell phones and credit cards. In my own words, Near Field Communication is a short-range high frequency wireless communication technology that empowers the trade of information between gadgets over around a 10 cm separation. Mobile technologies are creating new efficiencies and ways of working throughout the enterprise. In addition to the wireless system, I defined above, wireless frequency identification systems and wireless sensor networks are having a major impact. The most paramount advantage of Near Field Communication is NFC establishes a peer to peer network between 2 or more devices. NFC is an upgrade of the existing Ã¢â¬Å"Proximity Card Standard (RFID)Ã¢â¬ that joins the interface of a smartcard and an onlooker into a solitary gadget. It permits clients to flawlessly impart content between computerized gadgets, pay bills remotely or even utilize their cellphone as an electronic voyaging ticket on existing contactless foundation officially being used for open transportation. Advantages and disadvantages of NFC Advantages- Ã¢â¬Å"Near Field Communication (NFC)Ã¢â¬ has a significant advantage over Bluetooth which is the shorter set-up time. As opposed to performing manual arrangements to distinguish Bluetooth gadgets, the association between two NFC gadgets is made without a moments delay under a 1/10 second. Besides that, because of its shorter range, NFC gives a higher level of security than Bluetooth and makes NFC suitable for packed ranges where correlating a signal with its transmitting physical gadget and by amplification, its client may might otherwise prove impossible. Disadvantages- The disadvantage of Ã¢â¬Å"Near Field Communication (NFC) is it is too costly. Because of it, NFC is an unmanageable innovation and smaller organizations may not have any desire to hazard putting resources into NFC on the grounds that it is difficult to measure the extra benefit with NFC. Ã¢â¬Å"It might be costly for businesses to change the way they run their company, for example hiring NFC technicians and additional customer service to handle these tap go transactions (Business Insider). Systems analysis Definition Ã¢â¬Å"The system development phase involving the study of existing and work processes, to identify strengths, weakness and opportunities for improvementÃ¢â¬ . In my own words, System Analysis is defined as the analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system. Explanation of System Analysis The above diagram illustrates the problem-solving process to system building. Therefore, the four steps we would need to take are defining and understanding the problem, develop alternative solutions, choose the best solution and implement the solution. Before a problem can be solved, it first must be properly defined. Parts of the associations must concur that an issue really exists and that it is not kidding. The issue must be researched with the goal that it could be better caught on. In the information systems world, they have for these activities, therefore concluding the first three problem-solving steps where we identify the problem, gather information, devise the alternative solutions and we make decision about the best solution is what we call System Analysis.
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 4:00 AM
Friday, September 20, 2019
Merits And Demerits Of Utilitarianism Over the history of philosophy, utilitarianism has been widely regarded as an influential and convincing approach to normative ethics. It would not be possible to dissect and thoroughly discuss the many varieties of utilitarian ethics instead I will attempt to discuss the theory in broader less distinctive terms, and in particular the views of prominent utilitarian theorists John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham. Utilitarianism is generally held to be the view that the morally right action is the action that produces the most good. There are many ways to understand Utilitarianism as a code of ethics. It is important however to bear in mind that the theory exists as a form of consequentialism whereby for an action to be right, the consequences produced must be good or desirable. Essentially stripped of most underlying complexities utilitarianism is essentially about maximising the good for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism as described by Bentham is the greatest happiness or greatest felicity principle. Mill believed that for an action to be deemed right it must promote or result in happiness, likewise a wrong action would be one that brings about displeasure. However this could be considered a quite egocentric and self satisfying claim if it were not for the important establishment that it is not the facilitators own happiness that matters but the happiness of a majority. Personally it seems that utilitarianism achieves its goals by promoting moral values of honour so that all individuals work to serve the interests of others, in my view, an unrealistic expectation. In this sense it could be regarded as a standard for moral behaviour. Deontological ethics provide a powerful contrast to utilitarianism, which does not place utmost importance on the consequence of an action when determining the moral validity of an action. Utilitarianism as a concept essentially determines the moral worth of an action by its usefulness. If your action maximizes utility or usefulness to a large number of people it is deemed good. It is thus a form of consequentialism, (the moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome.) Jeremy Bentham is largely credited with developing a structured theory on Utilitarianism. Whilst his initial input is invaluable it would be ignorant to disregard the contributions of the man who greatly improved upon Benthams theories, John Stuart Mill. Both Bentham and Mill sought to use utilitarianism to help structure society. Mill believed we had rights if they were underwritten by utility. John Stuart Mill developed Benthams theory of utilitarianism and despite disagreeing with part of Benthams work, especially on the nature of happiness, they were similar. Bentham claimed that there were no qualitative differences between pleasures, only quantitative ones. Mill believed Benthams hedonism was too egalitarian. His view that unsophisticated pleasures particularly those of a sensual nature, were just as good as more sophisticated and complex pleasures conflicted strongly with Mills view of clear differentiation between pleasures. Benthams belief that qualitative differences in pleasures were nonexistent left him open to criticism that human pleasures were of no more value than animal pleasures. By this admission it was believed if there could be no differentiation of pleasures we were as morally complex as the common pig, tied to their sentience. Mills rule utilitarianism involves encouraging people to undertake pleasurable activites as long as they belong to what he deems a higher pleasure, such as reading a piece of well articulated philosophy or attending the opera. His notion of what constitutes a higher pleasure is dictated by certain class values and shows an arrogance in this assumption of ordering of pleasures. only the individual can truly determine the level of pleasure. His presumption that intellectual pleasures are more satisfactory and desirable than those of a more sensual nature also reveal a certain bias of character. It seems rationale that the decision would be left to a person who has experienced both Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ãâ¦Ã¢â¬Å"lower and higherÃ ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ pleasures to decide what is more fulfilling and in this regard, whilst I do not certainly know i can make an educated guess he led a life without much of the more sensual pleasure. To some this seems to mean that Mill really wasnt a h edonistic utilitarian. Maybe it is simply the degree of knowledge an individual has with the activity that determines the amount of pleasure they can receive from it, therefore their pleasure is limited by their socialisation. But I would propose that the less educated pleasure of drinking a beer in a pub and watching sport, compared to watching the opera and conversing in an intellectual nature have no difference if ones highest pleasure in both cases stated is simply that. By the same token, to remove a lower socio economic class citizen and place them within the opera which has no cultural context or relevance, they would find it a highly dissatisfying pleasure. There is no set scale of validating higher and lower pleasures, for the individual interpretation ranges too greatly. Instead the greatest pleasure you experience becomes at the top of your individual rankings and depending on your socialisation you will likewise rank all other experiences you encounter. Whilst it is true a lower class citizen may not encounter a broadened range of intellectually stimulating pleasures, this is not to say they need to in order to be fulfilled. Good and pleasure are ratified by the person that experiences them and the culture they live in. It can be said in critique of Utilitarianism that it only looks at the consequences of actions, and disregards the intention that motivate them. This today seems like a huge moral oversight, especially regarding the legal system for where for one to be proven guilty upon criminal charges both, Actus Reus-the guilty act- and Mens Rea-the guilty mind must be present. Certain crimes such as man slaughter and rape do not require Mens Rea but this is an exception. It would seem that society does not place a greater importance upon the intention of the act over the consequence consistently, rather it is situation dependent. However an interesting contradiction, an action with bad intentions that inadvertently causes overall good is not judged so harshly. Many utilitarians argue that utilitarianism, although it is consequentalist, is not so simply restricted. While the end product of a negatively motivated action may result in good (such as the collective vigilante action to kill a paedophi le) this does not mean utilitarians promote negative or hateful actions to produce a greater good. In this sense, intentions are important to utilitarians, in as much as they tend to lead to certain actions, which themselves lead to certain outcomes. Utilitarianism can be as complex as the interpretation and thought of the individual applying it to an ethical situation. For every situation the choice between actions is straightforward, choose the action that results in the greatest utility. However determining what act will have the greatest benefit can be rather more difficult. Our perceptions of usefulness may differ, as most certainly does the individual differ in their ideas of good. Certainly a well functioning society promotes an overarching theme of what is right or good but this does not include all perspectives. Utilitarianism does not care for the minority opinion. If an action can procure greatest good for a greater amount of people but causes pain and suffering to a smaller population in the process, is it justifiable? Does the number or ratio of people pleased to dissatisfied have an effect? Can we make the value of a human life, rights, or opinion quantifiable? It is not always at the beginning of an action what the outcome will be, nor is it always feasible to accurately judge who and how it will affect people. Judging an action by the outcome is therefore hard to do before the consequences are clear; surely it seems better to judge an action by its intention, even though there are also problems with this. Furthermore the calculations required to adequately make an informed judgement based upon utilitarian ethics can be complex and time consuming. In some instances, the people making decisions based upon utilitarian ethics may have no emotional interest. Whilst from a bias point of view this would seem sensible, is it really a humane thing to calculate issues pertaining to humans without emotion? It seems to some point illogical, computerised and to some point a product of a desensitised age. In fact many individuals faced with decisions of importance may not have the ethical or moral intelligence to adequately navigate a complex issue requiring ethical deliberation; utilitarianism would be d angerous in the hands of policy makers or people of power who have limited capacity to think carefully. It can simply offer too easy a solution to a much more complex issue. In response to objections such as these, certain supporters of utilitarianism have put forth a modification of the theory. The original form of Utilitarianism that has so many flaws is to be called Act utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism declares that each individual action is to be assessed directly in terms of the utility principle. A desirable and much needed improvement is rule utilitarianism where about behaviour is evaluated by rules that, if universally followed would lead to the greatest good for the greatest number. Thus, rule utilitarianism could address some of the flaws previously highlighted by using the utility principle to validate and give substance to the rules that protected essential human rights and the universal prohibition of certain actions. None the less this in turn raises problems, if the justification of the rule that protects human rights is found in the utility principle, what about the exception where breaching these rights leads to the attainment of the greatest good for the greatest number? It seems as if rule utilitarianism is no longer utilitarianism in the true sense of the word. For it to be regarded as such, it must maintain the utility principle as its definitive standard, and no rules or rights designed to protect the greatest number can stand in its way. This is where Act utilitarianism must once again be called into place, despite its many flaws. Despite the inconvenient contradiction within rule utilitarianism, a system of rules would help a majority of the time, even if they only served in an advisory capacity. It would help make choices, based upon prior occurrences, and negate the need for continuous calculations in most but not all situations. Somewhat similar to case law where one persons actions and the courts determination upon them set precedent for the next issue that similarly arises. Indeed this invokes instant opposition to the idea based upon the fact situations should be dealt with on individual merit but to proceed there must be compromises. I believe that whilst Utilitarianism is in theory understandable and rational, it is best left to the few that are capable of applying it successfully. I could not base an entire lifes decisions of the basis of utility, I would not end up a happy being, and I believe that no one could, constantly thinking of the greater good, we are selfish creatures. The thought of those in power using utilitarianism to determine appropriate courses of actions in certain ethical situations unsettles me. Especially regarding contentious issues such as asylum seekers, where the happiness or desires of the majority are not always well informed. The greatest good is rarely served accurately when the uninformed or misguided masses follow rules out of duty and leave the difficult and subtle calculations solely to those in authority. This is a dangerous attitude and far from involving or considered. There becomes too much control vested in those with positions of power and in the hands of a dictator the masses could easily suffer. In conclusion Utilitarianism as a normative code of ethics is only as useful as the person who interprets and uses it. It is but a tool to navigate ethical considerations, one that must be used knowing fully the positives and negatives to be weighed. Perhaps it is a code of ethics that is valuable but imperfect for humans; we are in our own judgement never perfect, we cannot make decisions that please everyone; this is as far as I can see in difficult situations, impossible. Instead it is in our best interests to act for the greater good, as what would be the sense in displeasing the majority unless the majority is morally repugnant and evil. Somehow this consideration scares me, for surely there will come a time where my wills are no longer in the best interests of the majority. Do my opinion and feelings no longer count to a utilitarian decision maker? This is certainly a complication, but with sound reasoning and sensible interpretation utilitarianism will work, but only for those whose intentions coincide with the majority. Utilitarianism will always be rationalised and beneficial, even if only for the greater good.
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 3:44 AM
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Third Cinema in China: Yellow Earth What is identified as 'excess' in Western cinematic experience is, therefore, precisely where we locate Third World cinema. -Teshome Gabriel The possibility of a Third Cinema in China is encouraged with Chen Kaige's 1984 film Yellow Earth. Drawing upon Teshome Gabriel's framework, a working definition of Third Cinema is possible in the case of Chinese cinema. The "fifth generation" of China's film-makers is credited in making films such as Yellow Earth, Farewell my Concubine, and The Blue Kite, as well as Raise the Red Lantern and Red Sorghum. While not all films made by the fifth generation are necessarily of a Third Cinema, many of them offer critique, drawing upon tactics to raise social or political consciousness. Yellow Earth 's characterization as Third Cinema lies in its aesthetic qualities, incorporation of folk art characteristics, and challenge of Western film language. Chinese Painting as Third Cinema Aesthetic Use of space is distinctive in Chinese painting, for not only is what space is occupied by an object, but more importantly the surrounding space. What, to the Western eye, may appear to be 'wasted' or 'empty' space, is as much a part of the entire picture than may appear to be the object of interest. Yellow Earth invokes characteristics of Chinese painting in the cinematographic style of Zhang Yimou. The use of Chinese painting' characteristics contributes to Yellow Earth as representative of Third Cinema in China. The use of space challenges Western convention, creating a new film grammar to code political agendas. In "Yellow Earth: Western Analysis and a Non-Western Text", Ester C.M. Yau notes that: Classical Chinese painting's representation of nature i... ...n Chinese, the folk culture seems dated and irrelevant. Third Cinema, however, realizes the need to draw upon folk tradition. Third Cinema is not limited to those cinemas of Latin America or Africa. It is located where challenges to Western cinematic domination and rules are played out. In China, the years following the downfall of the 10 year reign of the Cultural Revolution produced a climate ripe for a politicized revolutionary cinema. Yet, the cinema in China remains bound to censorship and banning of films. The overtly politically challenging film The Blue Kite, set in the decade leading up to the Cultural Revolution, was banned and denounced by Chinese authorities. What has emerged then is the need to create a new language for the cinema to speak with. The language of Yellow Earth draws upon Chinese art to create a new aesthetic, a Third Cinema aesthetic.
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 5:05 AM
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Oliver Twist Oliver Twist, a poor, innocent orphan boy, stands out in this story as the main character, but it is the supporting characters that allow this novel to develop a much more satisfying and believable theme. With "Good V.S. Evil" as one of the major conflicts, in such categories are the secondary characters found as well. Three supporting characters of Oliver Twist aid the elaboration of the story; these significant characters are Mr. Brownlow representing purity, integrity and goodness, Nancy as partially righteous, partially villain and lastly on the other extreme of the scale: Fagin, the symbol of evil, corruption and manipulation. Throughout the story we are introduced to each of these characters through an omniscient point of view, and are able to categorize them according to their personalities, thoughts and actions. With their differing levels of honesty and social status, each of them play a crucial role in the development of the story's theme. As most of the author's characters, Mr. Brownlow too, is brought out with an indirect presentation but it is not long after introducing him that his wholesome goodness is revealed to us. Though at first he accuses Oliver of stealing, his concern over Oliver's welfare on the street is a direct hint of his innocence which successfully helps him convince Oliver to board at his house. A generous and trusting man he was, perhaps too good a man to be true; but with all the malicious characters in the story, a pure persona was needed to ensure a happy ending. With honesty and great wealth as his prime qualities, he assists Oliver in his times of need and demonstrates to society with an exemplary touch, the attributes of a perfect citizen. As the positive extreme in both social status and benevolence, Mr. Brownlow is a definite aid in the development of the theme throughout the novel. Nancy, for us, must be the weakest character. Trapped between wanting to help Oliver evade Fagin's exploitat ion and her dedicated love for Sikes; she fails to survive to the end as she is convicted and ironically murdered by her own husband: Sikes, a brutal and abusive man. But there is a great need for this secondary character in the story, she serves not only as a tie between the scenes at the different house holds but as well she is the only hope of salvation for Oliver. Without her, Oliver may have never had... ...ty in the midst of England's nineteenth century. As revealed throughout the tale, England's nineteenth century was an period of much poverty and great social problems which resulted in a society of two opposing classes: the wealthy and the poor. Within these two classes lay two other opposing forces: the good and the bad. In the same way that good and bad exist within all classes in the novel, the same thing can be said about real life. What the theme of this story says about reality is that in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, it doesn't matter whether you are rich or poor, educated or not, most competent human beings possess the ability to judge right from wrong and are therefore free to make whatever choices in their lives they wish to make, provided though, that they can live with the consequences of their decisions. In Oliver's case, even just as a very young boy, he too was able to judge right from wrong and ends up choosing not to steal. As a result of his decision, young Oliver is given a happy home and a promising future. On the other hand, Fagin's judgment is not so proficient, and concluding, he remains with nothing but insanity and a solemn life in jail until his last day comes about.
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 6:26 AM
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Chapter 4 Salespeople Work In Two Markets 1. Consumer Markets 2. Business Markets: Industrial or organizational markets FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND STRUCTURE * Examine customers in each market. * Determine the types of sales jobs needed to serve a market. * Note the job activities salespeople must do. * Design sales jobs around customers. * Set up the sales force organizational structure, which includes the various sales jobs and geographic territories.Application Of The Sales Job Classifications 1. Order Takers: wait for the costumer to order 2. Order Getters: obtain, retain, and increase business with customers. This salesperson must often create discontent with what the prospect already has and has to overcome the most powerful and obstinate resistance. THE LINE ORGANIZATION In the pure line organization, the chief executive Ã¢â¬â usually the president Ã¢â¬â does the decision making for the firm. The president has complete authority.Line authority means tha t people in management positions have formal authority to direct and control immediate subordinates. Staff authority is narrower and includes the right to advise, recommend, and counsel in the staff specialistsÃ¢â¬â¢ areas of expertise. Geographic Specialization Many large corporations are organized by geographic territory. This type of organization is generally used by companies with more than strictly local distribution of their products Product Specialization Another common type of organization in large companies is based on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s product.The entire company may be organized by product, with separate sales, advertising, marketing, and so on, along with staffs for each, or some functional units may remain centralized. Customer Specialization Companies with several separate and distinct markets accounting for major portions of their sales often organize based on these markets or customers. Combination of Design Elements Many companies organize on the basis of some comb ination of functional, geographic, product, or customer design.
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 8:26 AM
Monday, September 16, 2019
Introduction This paper will cover several topics related to high-performing teams and work groups. It will discuss how these two kinds of workplace people sets and how they differ in their pursuit of organizational strategy and compare these differences to virtual teams. It will identify the characteristics of successful leaders of high-performing teams and finally discuss why high-performing teams are important to organizations. High-Performing Teams and Work Groups Before we can define high-performing teams or work groups, we will need to define the term team first. A team can be defined as a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Ã¢â¬Å"That definition lays down the discipline that teams must share to be effective (Katzenbach, 2005). Organizations utilize teams to perform operational and project based tasks. People working in teams have the capacity to solve complex problems that cannot be solved by individuals working alone. People working in teams bring more resources to a task, including a variety of perspectives, knowledge, skills, and experience (Capella University, 2008). This diversity of perspectives, knowledge, skills, and experience allows a team to outperform the sum of its parts and is a critical component of a team being labeled as a high-performing team. Teams come in many forms, they can be permanent or temporary, they can be leader-led or self-managed, and they can be co-located or virtual. Regardless of their purpose and form, all teams are made up of individuals interacting interdependently to achieve common organizational goal. Furthermore, all teams share the following: clear boundaries, common tasks, differentiated member roles, autonomy, dependence on others, and collective responsibility (Capella University, 2008). Teams definitely are forms of work groups, but not all work groups are teams (Brounstein, 2011). A work group is also a collection of individuals however; they may not have complementary skills, a common purpose or a set of shared goals. In a work group, each member is responsible for only their own individual contributions. He or she achieves outcomes or makes their contribution to the organization in (relative) isolation. Individuals need not have any concern about what other members of the group achieve. Within a work group, there is not the interconnectedness and shared responsibility you see between team members. Each member of a group can say Ã¢â¬ËI did my best; it is not my fault that others did not pull their weight (www. leadership-development-coaching. com, 2011). Ã¢â¬â¢ To add more context to the difference between work groups and teams refer to Table 1 (Brounstein, 2011). Work Groups| Teams| Individual accountability| Individual and mutual accountability| Come together to share information and perspectives| Frequently come together for discussion, decision-making, problem solving and planning. | Focus on individual goals| Focus on team goals| Produce individual work products| Produce collective work products| Define individual roles, responsibilities, and tasks| Define individual roles, responsibilities, and tasks to help team do its work; often share and rotate them| Concern with one's own outcome and challenges| Concern with outcomes of everyone and challenges the team faces| Purpose, goals, approach to work shaped by manager| Purpose, goals, approach to work shaped by team leader with team members| Table 1: Difference between Work Groups and Teams High-Performing teams have deeper characteristics that separate them from any team with the Ã¢â¬ËteamÃ¢â¬â¢ characteristics mentioned previously. Members of high-performing teams tend to develop a collective purpose that goes beyond that which the organization has established for them (Capella University, 2008). According to Harvard researcher Richard Hickman, high-performing teams must meet three effectiveness criteria (Capella University, 2008): * The team must consistently produce high-quality output. * The team must promote the personal growth needs and well-being of team members. The team must grow and learn as a unit. The Pursuit of Organizational Strategy It is not too much of a stretch to see which scenario is preferable when it comes to pursuing alignment with your organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. Those in a workgroup, although maybe tied in roles and responsibilities to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic imperatives, is not concerned about others in his group or departm ent, and therefore has no vested interest in another succeeding. High performing teams, on the other hand, consider their team as equally or more important than themselves. A recent study of Fortune 1000 companies conducted by the Center for Effective Organizations at the University of Southern California concluded that 68 percent of the organizations in the study use self Ã¢â¬âmanaged or high-performing teamsÃ¢â¬ ¦but the study also shows only 10 percent of workers were in such teams (Capella University, 2008). Therefore, as much as we can agree there is a benefit from moving those in work groups into high-performing team environments, these environments are difficult to create, lead and maintain. A failed attempt to create a high-performing team could be more detrimental than keeping a group of individuals in the work group mode, and thus making each individual accountable for driving alignment with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. Virtual teams can play an interesting twist on this strategic alignment anomaly. This author suggests that virtual teams are no different in driving alignment with organizational strategy than co-located teams, with one exception. In the role of operational support, where, for example a help-desk or call-center can take advantage of the Ã¢â¬Å"follow-the-sunÃ¢â¬ support methodology, you can find significant benefit by tying a virtual teamÃ¢â¬â¢s performance as a team to an SLA, where individuals are working together to answer phones within a certain amount of rings, meet a certain first call resolution statistic etc. This type of virtual team, if lead properly can be a very high-performing team, as their bonuses and overall performance can be tied to these SLA results of the team. Successful Leadership Characteristics of High-Performing Teams Leadership of high-performing teams have been mentioned twice in this paper; once to summarize how difficult it is to maintain high-performing teams, the second to note how to lead a high-performing virtual team. Managing any team is not an easy task. Managing and maintaining high-performing teams is increasingly difficult. Creating and managing high-performing teams is as much an art as it is a science. There is no magic formula that will uarantee team success, nor is there one best way to lead a team (Capella University, 2008). We can define four team leadership skills that will help drive work groups and teams into high-performing teams: 1. Invest in ongoing personal development 2. Provide team direction, structure and resources 3. Help the team manage boundaries 4. Manage the type and timing of interventions The Importance of High-Performing Teams We have shown the significant benefit of creating and maintaining high- performing teams concerning an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy and team accomplishment. High-performing teams tend to require less management since the team assumes a purpose as a whole and not individuals. These teams tend to be self-managed, or slightly managed by a leader, more so in a facilitation role than what we know as a daily manager. The most important task of the team leader is to create a work context that inspires and enables the team to do its work rather than directly intervening in the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s day-to-day work (Capella University, 2008). This is increasingly important to organizations as the economic outlook continues to force reductions in departmental personnel. References Brounstein, M. (2011). Differences between Work Groups and Teams. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from Dummies. com; Making Everything Easier: http://www. dummies. com/how-to/content/differences-between-work-groups-and-teams. html Capella University. (2008). TS5160: Business Foundations (2nd Custom ed. ). Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing. Katzenbach, J. (2005, July 1). The Discipline of Teams. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from Capella University: http://web. ebscohost. com. library. capella. edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=3;hid=119;sid=0579d6ae-2d3d-4908-9971-cea2472130f6%40sessionmgr112 www. leadership-development-coaching. com. (2011). Team vs Group: implications for leaders. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from Leadership Development Coaching: http://www. leadership-development-coaching. com/team-vs-group. html
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 10:45 AM
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Bucket List The Bucket List was an amazing movie; it was a movie that showed two older men on a journey to find the meaning of life. Mr. Edward Cole a corporate billionaire and a scholarly mechanic Carter Chambers met in the hospital because they both had Cancer. The time that they spent together in the hospital did not only bring them great friendship but also together they found the joy and meaning of life. While sitting in the hospital together slowly dying from cancer they decided that they were not ready to die and they still had a lot of things they wanted to do for themselves before it was too late. So, they made a bucket list, and decided to escape the hospital and do everything that they always wanted to do. Carter Chambers was married to his dear wife, Virginia, for 45 years he had a happy marriage and a wonderful family but, Mr. Chambers felt as if something was missing. He explained that for the last forty five years of his life were mostly dedicated to his family and wife, now he wants to have time for himself and do the things he always wanted to do, but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get a chance to do. Even though his friend Edward Cole was a billionaire; he also felt as if there was something missing out of his life, he had a lot of money and many divorces, and a daughter that he has not spoken with, that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make him feel like he had the true meaning to life. As a person approaches late adulthood, health problems are not just the issue, but problems regarding oneÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning of life. Both of these men felt unsatisfied or incomplete, with their overall feeling, they were both suffering from a terminal disease, and they both felt if they were going to die they wanted die knowing they got the best out of life, with no regrets, and lived life to the fullest. Both Edward and Carter where demonstrating EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Last stage of development. His last stage is integrity vs. espair hoping that one will gain strength of wisdom so that person will not be afraid of death. Erikson believes that much of life was preparing for the middle adult stage and the last stage is to recovering from it. When a person is older and is able to reevaluate their life with happiness, and feels fulfilled with a deep sense of life and meaning is when that person is experiencing integrity. If a person is experiencing that they failed at life, and have no meaning to life this is when the person is displaying despair. They fear death because they have not got all out of life
Posted by Leroy Thornton at 1:04 PM
Saturday, September 14, 2019
INDUSTRY PROFILE Soap in Philippines Reference Code: 0115-0208 Publication Date: April 2011 www. datamonitor. com Datamonitor USA 245 Fifth Avenue 4th Floor New York, NY 10016 USA t: +1 212 686 7400 f: +1 212 686 2626 e: [emailÃ protected] com Datamonitor Europe 119 Farringdon Road London EC1R 3DA United Kingdom t: +44 20 7551 9000 f: +44 20 7675 7500 e: [emailÃ protected] com Datamonitor Middle East and North Africa Datamonitor PO Box 24893 Dubai, UAE t: +49 69 9754 4517 f: +49 69 9754 4900 e: [emailÃ protected] datamonitor. com Datamonitor Asia Pacific Level 46, 2 Park Street Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia : +61 2 8705 6900 f: +61 2 8705 6901 e: [emailÃ protected] com Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Market value The Philippine soap market grew by 3. 7% in 2010 to reach a value of $132. 2 million. Market value forecast In 2015, t he Philippine soap market is forecast to have a value of $156. 8 million, an increase of 18. 6% since 2010. Market volume The Philippine soap market grew by 2. 4% in 2010 to reach a volume of 93. 7 million units. Market volume forecastIn 2015, the Philippine soap market is forecast to have a volume of 103. 9 million units, an increase of 10. 9% since 2010. Market segmentation I Bar soap is the largest segment of the soap market in Philippines, accounting for 89. 6% of the market's total value. Market segmentation II Philippines accounts for 2. 3% of the Asia-Pacific soap market value. Market share Procter & Gamble Company, The is the leading player in the Philippine soap market, generating a 64. 4% share of the market's value. Market rivalry The Philippines soap market is highly concentrated with top three players accounting for 82. 2% of the total market value.Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0 208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 2 CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY MARKET OVERVIEW Market definition Research highlights Market analysis MARKET VALUE MARKET VOLUME MARKET SEGMENTATION I MARKET SEGMENTATION II MARKET SHARE FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS Summary Buyer power Supplier power New entrants Substitutes Rivalry LEADING COMPANIES Procter & Gamble Company, The Colgate-Palmolive Company Unilever MARKET DISTRIBUTION MARKET FORECASTS Market value forecast Market volume forecast MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS APPENDIX Methodology Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 2 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 26 31 35 36 36 37 38 40 40 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 3 CONTENTS Industry associations Related Datamonitor research Disclaimer ABOUT DATAMONITOR Premium Reports Summary Reports Datamonitor consulting 41 41 42 43 43 43 43 Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 4 CONTENTS LIST OF TABLESTable 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Table 19: Table 20: Table 21: Table 22: Table 23: Table 24: Philippines soap market value: $ million, 2006Ã¢â¬â10(e) Philippines soap market volume: million units, 2006Ã¢â¬â10(e) Philippines soap market segmentation I:% share, by value, 2010(e) Philippines soap market segmentation II: % share, by value, 2010(e) Philippines soap market share: % share, by value, 2010(e) Procter & Gamble Company, The: key facts Procter & Gamble Company, The: key financials ($) Procter & Gamble Company, The: key financial ratios Colgate-Palmolive Company: key facts Colgate-Palmolive Company: key financials ($) Colgate-Palmolive Company: key financial ratios Unilever: key facts Unilever: key financials ($) Unilever: key financials (Ã¢â ¬) Unile ver: key financial ratios Philippines soap market distribution: % share, by value, 2010(e) Philippines soap market value forecast: $ million, 2010Ã¢â¬â15 Philippines soap market volume forecast: million units, 2010Ã¢â¬â15 Philippines size of population (million), 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Philippines gdp (constant 2000 prices, $ billion), 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Philippines gdp (current prices, $ billion), 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Philippines inflation, 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Philippines consumer price index (absolute), 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Philippines exchange rate, 2006Ã¢â¬â10 10 11 12 13 14 21 24 24 26 28 29 31 33 33 33 35 36 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 5 CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Philippines soap market value: $ million, 2006Ã¢â¬â10(e) Philippines soap market volume: million units, 2006Ã ¢â¬â10(e) Philippines soap market segmentation I:% share, by value, 2010(e) Philippines soap market segmentation II: % share, by value, 2010(e) Philippines soap market share: % share, by value, 2010(e) Forces driving competition in the soap market in Philippines, 2010 Drivers of buyer power in the soap market in Philippines, 2010 Drivers of supplier power in the soap market in Philippines, 2010 Factors influencing the likelihood of new entrants in the soap market in Philippines, 2010 Factors influencing the threat of substitutes in the soap market in Philippines, 2010 Drivers of degree of rivalry in the soap market in Philippines, 2010 Procter & Gamble Company, The: revenues & profitability Procter & Gamble Company, The: assets & liabilities Colgate-Palmolive Company: revenues & profitability Colgate-Palmolive Company: assets & liabilities Unilever: revenues & profitability Unilever: assets & liabilities Philippines soap market distribution: % share, by value, 2010(e) Philippines soap market value forecast: $ million, 2010Ã¢â¬â15 Philippines soap market volume forecast: million units, 2010Ã¢â¬â15 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 25 29 30 34 34 35 36 37 Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor.This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 6 MARKET OVERVIEW MARKET OVERVIEW Market definition The soap market consists of retail sales of bar soap and liquid soap. The market is valued according to retail selling price (RSP) and includes any applicable taxes. Any currency conversions used in the creation of this report have been calculated using constant 2010 annual average exchange rates. For the purpose of this report Asia-Pacific comprises Australia, China, Japan, India, Singapore, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Pak istan and Taiwan. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor.This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 7 MARKET OVERVIEW Research highlights The Philippines soap market generated total revenues of $132. 2 million in 2010, representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3. 9% for the period spanning 2006-2010. Bar soap sales proved the most lucrative for the Philippines soap market in 2010, generating total revenues of $118. 5 million, equivalent to 89. 6% of the market's overall value. The performance of the market is forecast to decelerate, with an anticipated CAGR of 3. 5% for the fiveyear period 2010-2015, which is expected to lead the market to a value of $156. million by the end of 2015. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 8 MARKET OVERVIEW Market analysis The Philippines soap market grew at a steady rate during the period 2006-2010, as a result of steady sales growth in the liquid soap and bar soap categories. The overall market growth is expected to decelerate in the forthcoming five years. The Philippines soap market generated total revenues of $132. 2 million in 2010, representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3. 9% for the period spanning 2006-2010. In comparison, the Malaysian and Thai markets grew with CAGRs of 3. 2% and 3. % respectively, over the same period, to reach respective values of $60. 7 million and $182 million in 2010. Market consumption volumes increased with a CAGR of 2. 7% between 2006 and 2010, to reach a total of 93. 7 million units in 2010. The market's volume is expected to rise to 103. 9 million units by the end of 2015, representing a CAGR of 2. 1% for the 2010-2015 period. Bar soap sales proved the most lucrative for the Philippines soap market in 2010, generating total revenues of $118. 5 million, equivalent to 89. 6% of the market's overall va lue. In comparison, sales of liquid soap generated revenues of $13. 8 million in 2010, equating to 10. % of the market's aggregate revenues. The performance of the market is forecast to decelerate, with an anticipated CAGR of 3. 5% for the fiveyear period 2010-2015, which is expected to lead the market to a value of $156. 8 million by the end of 2015. Comparatively, the Malaysian and Thai markets will grow with CAGRs of 2. 6% and 2. 1% respectively, over the same period, to reach respective values of $69 million and $201. 8 million in 2015. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 9 MARKET VALUE MARKET VALUE The Philippine soap market grew by 3. 7% in 2010 to reach a value of $132. million. The compound annual growth rate of the market in the period 2006Ã¢â¬â10 was 3. 9%. Table 1: Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010(e) CAGR: 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Source: Datamonitor Philippines soap market value: $ million, 2006Ã¢â¬â10(e) $ million 113. 6 118. 3 122. 9 127. 5 132. 2 PHP million 5,137. 1 5,350. 2 5,557. 8 5,768. 8 5,982. 8 Ã¢â ¬ million 85. 5 89. 1 92. 6 96. 1 99. 6 % Growth 4. 1 3. 9 3. 8 3. 7 3. 9% DATAMONITOR Figure 1: Philippines soap market value: $ million, 2006Ã¢â¬â10(e) Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 10 MARKET VOLUME MARKET VOLUMEThe Philippine soap market grew by 2. 4% in 2010 to reach a volume of 93. 7 million units. The compound annual growth rate of the market in the period 2006Ã¢â¬â10 was 2. 7%. Table 2: Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010(e) CAGR: 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Source: Datamonitor Philippines soap market volume: million units, 2006Ã¢â¬â10(e) million units 84. 2 86. 6 89. 1 91. 5 93. 7 % Growth 2. 9 2. 9 2. 7 2. 4 2. 7% DATAMONITOR Figure 2: Philippines soap market volume: million units, 2006Ã¢â¬â10 (e) Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 11 MARKET SEGMENTATION I MARKET SEGMENTATION IBar soap is the largest segment of the soap market in Philippines, accounting for 89. 6% of the market's total value. The liquid soap segment accounts for the remaining 10. 4% of the market. Table 3: Category Bar soap Liquid soap Total Source: Datamonitor Philippines soap market segmentation I:% share, by value, 2010(e) % Share 89. 6% 10. 4% 100% DATAMONITOR Figure 3: Philippines soap market segmentation I:% share, by value, 2010(e) Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 12 MARKET SEGMENTATION II MARKET SEGMENTATION II Philippines accounts for 2. 3% of the Asia-Pacific soap market value.Thailand accounts for a further 3. 1 % of the Asia-Pacific market. Table 4: Category Thailand Philippines Malaysia New Zealand Rest of Asia-Pacific Total Source: Datamonitor Philippines soap market segmentation II: % share, by value, 2010(e) % Share 3. 1% 2. 3% 1. 0% 0. 4% 93. 3% 100% DATAMONITOR Figure 4: Philippines soap market segmentation II: % share, by value, 2010(e) Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 13 MARKET SHARE MARKET SHARE Procter & Gamble Company, The is the leading player in the Philippine soap market, generating a 64. % share of the market's value. Colgate-Palmolive Company accounts for a further 16% of the market. Table 5: Company Procter & Gamble Company, The Colgate-Palmolive Company Unilever Others Total Source: Datamonitor Philippines soap market share: % share, by value, 2010(e) % Share 64. 4% 16. 0% 1. 9% 17. 8% 100% DATAMONITOR Figure 5: Philippines soap market share: % share, by value, 2010(e) Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 14 FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS The soap market will be analyzed taking manufacturers of soaps as players.The key buyers will be taken as distributors of soaps such as retailers, and suppliers of lye, solid fats and further inputs (e. g. water, antibacterial agents and moisturizers) used in the production of soaps as the key suppliers. Summary Figure 6: Forces driving competition in the soap market in Philippines, 2010 Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR The Philippines soap market is highly concentrated with top three players accounting for 82. 2% of the total market value. The market has the presence of leading players like Procter & Gamble Company, Colgate-Palmolive and Unilever. Independent retailers are the main buyers in the Philippines soap market.Supp liers to the personal hygiene market are also weakened by the scale of market players. Suppliers of ingredients and packaging are smaller relative to manufacturers, which decreases supplier power in this market. However, suppliers provide for a diverse client base and correspondingly supplier power is assessed as moderate overall. Attempting to enter this market is precarious, with new entrants competing with numerous sophisticated companies with large scale economies. The market is well developed and many of the players sell similar products, leading to an intensely competitive environment, with players competing for the same share of the market.However, the diversity of products offered by the market players reduces rivalry to a certain degree. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 15 FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS Buyer power Figure 7: Drivers of buyer power in the soap market in Phi lippines, 2010 Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR In Philippines, the main distribution channels for the soaps are independent retailers, which account for 52. 8% of the total sales value. Retailers often occupy a position of power in the supply chain which allows them to negotiate favorable contracts with manufacturers, this enhances buyer power.Furthermore, soaps are just one of a wide range of products sold by most retailers: this reduces the importance of this product to buyers, thus increasing buyer power further. However, branding is an important way of maintaining end-user loyalty, and as a result retailers are required to stock the more popular brands, which reduce their bargaining strength and buyer power. Overall buyer power is assessed as moderate. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 16 FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS Supplier power Figure 8: Drivers of supplier power in the so ap market in Philippines, 2010 Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITORCommercial bar soaps contain sodium tallowate, sodium cocoate, sodium palmate and similar ingredients, all of which are the results of reacting solid fats (tallow, coconut oil, and palm kernel oil respectively) with lye. Therefore key suppliers to the soap market are suppliers of lye, solid fats and further inputs (e. g. water, antibacterial agents and moisturizers) used in the production of liquid soaps. Chemical suppliers often supply lye to manufacturers, and these companies are often relatively largescale and few in number, which increases supplier power. Overall, supplier power is assessed as moderate in the Philippines soap market. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 17 FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS New entrants Figure 9: Factors influencing the likelihood of new entrants in the soap market in Philippines, 2010 Source : Datamonitor DATAMONITOR There is limited product differentiation within the soap market, with the key segments consisting of bar and liquid soaps, and this coupled with weak market growth may act as a deterrent to potential new entrants. However, product variations can be achieved through the use of fragrances, and shape or design of soap bars etc. It may be possible for new entrants to achieve relative success stressing artisan production methods, e. g. handmade, natural aromatherapy soaps.Furthermore, it is important for new entrants to find a place for their products on the supermarket and drug store shelves; and as retail space is a finite resource, this means that new entrants must persuade the stores that it is worth displacing older brands to make way for a new product. Overall, the likelihood of new entrants is moderate. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 18 FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS Substitutes Figure 10: Factors influencing the threat of substitutes in the soap market in Philippines, 2010 Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR Substitutes to manufactured soap bars, and liquid soaps can be achieved through homemade versions of soaps. This method would allow consumers to tailor their production method with ingredients to suit their preferences.However, it is likely to be more expensive to buy ingredients separately than manufactured soaps, and the method used to produce the soap is relatively time consuming. Furthermore, the end results may also be unpredictable and would not produce the desired results compares to branded soaps. These factors are likely to limit the threat of such substitutes. Overall, the threat of substitutes is assessed as weak. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 19 FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS Rivalry Figure 11: Drivers of degree of rivalry in the soap market in Philippines, 2010 Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR The Philippines soap market is highly concentrated with top three players accounting for 82. 2% of the total market value.These companies are largely diversified, with product ranges covering markets beyond other personal care products, with leading player Colgate-Palmolive offering consumer products such as oral care, household surface, fabric care and pet nutrition products. This means that players aren't heavily reliant upon sales of soap products, which reduces the degree of rivalry to an extent. Overall, there is a moderate degree of rivalry in the Philippines soap market. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 20 LEADING COMPANIES LEADING COMPANIES Procter & Gamble Company, TheTable 6: Head office: Telephone: Local office: Telephone: Website: Financial year-end: Ticker: Stock exchange: Sour ce: company website Procter & Gamble Company, The: key facts One Procter & Gamble Plaza, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201, USA 1 513 983 1100 Distributing Philippines Inc. , 6750 Ayala Office Tower, Makati 1226, PHI 63 2 894 39 55 www. pg. com June PG New York DATAMONITOR Procter & Gamble Company (P) is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of consumer products. The company markets more than 300 brands in over 180 countries spanning the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA), and Asian region. It is headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio and employs about 127,000 people.P sells its products through mass merchandisers, grocery stores, membership club stores, drug stores and in high-frequency stores. P is organized into three global business units (GBUs) and a global operations group. The GBUs of the company comprise beauty and grooming, health and well-being, and household care business units. The GBUs identify common consumer needs, develop new products and build its brands. The bu siness units comprising the GBUs are aggregated into six reportable segments: beauty; grooming; health care; snacks and pet care; fabric care and home care; and baby care and family care. The beauty GBU comprises the beauty and the grooming businesses; the health and well-being GBU consists of the health care, and the snacks and pet care businesses.The household care GBU comprises the fabric care and home care as well as the baby care and family care businesses. The beauty segment includes cosmetics, deodorants, hair care, skin care, prestige fragrances and personal cleansing. The hair care sub-segment consists of conditioner, hair colorants, salon products, shampoo and styling agents. The key brands offered by the segment include Head & Shoulders, Olay, Pantene, Head and Shoulders, Aussie, Fekkai, Nioxin and Wella. The key brands offered in the Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 201 0 Page 21 LEADING COMPANIES deodorant category include Old Spice, Secret and Gillette.Personal cleansing products include brands such as Camay, Gillette, Ivory, Olay, Old spice, and Zest in the body wash category. In September 2008, the Procter & Gamble acquired NIOXIN Research Laboratories, a player in the scalp care professional haircare segment. NIOXIN offers a range of products that focus on the scalp and are distributed through salons and salon stores in more than 40 countries. In April 2009, P sold its ethnic hair care company Johnson Products to a group of investors. Johnson Products is a major player in the ethnic hair care market in Americas with a range of 30 products that includes the Gentle Treatment and Ultra Sheen brands.In the same year P sold of its global Infusium 23 hair care business to Helen of Troy, a designer, developer and worldwide marketer of personal care and household consumer products. The grooming segment comprises blades and razors, face and shave prepa ration products (such as shaving cream), electric hair removal devices and small household appliances. The key brands marketed by the grooming segment include Braun, Fusion, Gillette and Mach3. The electric hair removal devices and small home appliances are marketed under the Braun brand. The healthcare segment includes oral care, feminine care, pharmaceuticals and personal health care businesses.The oral care products are marketed worldwide under the brands Crest and Oral-B. In December 2008, Panasonic Electric Works entered into a supply agreement with P to supply its Palsonic electric toothbrush, which P introduced in the US and European markets during late 2009 under its own brand name. In pharmaceuticals and personal health, P serves the global bisphosphonates market for the treatment of osteoporosis under the Actonel brand. It leads the market in nonprescription heartburn medications and in respiratory treatments. The snacks and pet care segment markets its products under the brands lams and Pringles. In the snacks business, the company sells potato chips through its Pringles brand.The fabric care and home care segment offers a wide range of fabric care products including laundry cleaning products and fabric conditioners; and home care products, including dish care, surface cleaners and air fresheners; and batteries. The segment markets its products under Ariel, Dawn, Downy, Duracell, Gain and Tide brands. The dish care products are offered under Cascade, Dawn, Ivory, Ariel and Joy brands. The baby care and family care segment offers baby wipes, bath tissues, diapers, facial tissues and paper towels under the following brands: Bounty, Charmin and Pampers. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s family care business primarily operates in North America.The global operations group consists of the market development organization (MDO) and global business services (GBS). The MDO comprises retail customer, trade channel and country-specific teams. It is Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 22 LEADING COMPANIES organized along five geographic regions: North America, Western Europe, Central & Eastern Europe/Middle East/Africa (CEEMEA), Latin America and Asia (comprises Japan, Greater China and ASEAN/Australia/India/Korea (AAIK)). The GBS also provides technology, processes and standard data tools to support the operations of GBUs and the MDO.P also operates P Professional, a business-to-business division that serves food services, commercial cleaning, lodging and vending industries. The company's North American operation covers Canada, Puerto Rico and the US regions. P&G has a presence in every country in Western Europe. In Western Europe, the company operates about 35 manufacturing plants and markets over 100 brands. P&G's CEEMEA includes the Balkans, Central Europe North, Central Europe South, Eastern Europe, Middle East, Sub Sahara, Turkey/Caucasia and the Central Asian Republics. In Latin America, the company operates 19 manufacturing sites, 12 distribution centers and a service center in 14 countries.P's Asian operation covers China, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, India, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Bangladesh. P&G operates across Western Europe. The region accounts for about a quarter of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s total business. P&G markets over 100 brands in Europe. Some major brands marketed by the company in Europe include Pampers, Oral-B, Ariel, Always, Pantene, Mach3, Herbal Essences, Pringles, Lenor, Iams, Duracell, Olay, Head & Shoulders, Wella, Gillette, and Braun. P&G launched Fairy autodishwashing in Western Europe in FY2008. The Asia-Pacific operations of P&G are divided into three sub-regions: Asean, Australia and India (AAI), Greater China (China and Taiwan) and North Asia (Japan and Korea).However, P&G is centralizing its Asia-Pacific opera tions into a single entity to increase its focus on emerging economies. The company is expected to merge GBUs for the three regional hubs into one to improve efficiency. In February 2010, P&G launched a plant-based hair care range under the brand Nature Fusion, comprising shampoo, conditioner and leave-in conditioner. The product range consists of ingredients derived from plants known for their traditional medicinal qualities. Key Metrics Procter & Gamble generated revenues of $78. 9 billion in the financial year (FY) ended June 2010, an increase of 2. 9% over 2009. The company's net income totaled $12. 7 billion in FY2010, a decrease of 5. 2% over 2009.The beauty and grooming GBU accounted for 34. 4% of the total revenues in FY2010. Revenues from beauty and grooming GBU reached $27. 1 billion in FY2010, an increase of 3% over FY2009. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 23 L EADING COMPANIES Table 7: $ million Procter & Gamble Company, The: key financials ($) 2006 68,222. 0 8,684. 0 135,695. 0 72,787. 0 138,000 2007 74,832. 0 10,340. 0 138,014. 0 71,254. 0 138,000 2008 79,257. 0 12,075. 0 143,992. 0 74,498. 0 138,000 2009 76,694. 0 13,436. 0 134,833. 0 71,451. 0 135,000 2010 78,938. 0 12,736. 0 128,172. 0 66,733. 0 127,000Revenues Net income (loss) Total assets Total liabilities Employees Source: company filings DATAMONITOR Table 8: Ratio Procter & Gamble Company, The: key financial ratios 2006 12. 7% 20. 2% 120. 5% 69. 1% 53. 6% 8. 8% $494,362 $62,928 2007 13. 8% 9. 7% 1. 7% (2. 1%) 51. 6% 7. 6% $542,261 $74,928 2008 15. 2% 5. 9% 4. 3% 4. 6% 51. 7% 8. 6% $574,326 $87,500 2009 17. 5% (3. 2%) (6. 4%) (4. 1%) 53. 0% 9. 6% $568,104 $99,526 2010 16. 1% 2. 9% (4. 9%) (6. 6%) 52. 1% 9. 7% $621,559 $100,283 Profit margin Revenue growth Asset growth Liabilities growth Debt/asset ratio Return on assets Revenue per employee Profit per employee Source: company fil ings DATAMONITORPhilippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 24 LEADING COMPANIES Figure 12: Procter & Gamble Company, The: revenues & profitability Source: company filings DATAMONITOR Figure 13: Procter & Gamble Company, The: assets & liabilities Source: company filings DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 25 LEADING COMPANIES Colgate-Palmolive Company Table 9: Colgate-Palmolive Company: key facts 300 Park Avenue, New York City, New York 10022, USA 1 212 310 2000 1 212 310 3284 www. colgate. om December CL New York DATAMONITOR Head office: Telephone: Fax: Website: Financial year-end: Ticker: Stock exchange: Source: company website Colgate-Palmolive Company (Colgate) engages in the manufacture and marketing of a wide range of consumer products such as toothpastes, toothbrushes, detergents, shower gels, conditioners, shampoos, cleansers, bleaches and pet foods. The company markets its products in over 200 countries and territories throughout the world. It is headquartered in New York, the US and employs around 39,200 people. Colgate owns more than 80 brands across various product categories such as oral care, personal care, home care and pet nutrition.The principal global and regional trademarks owned by the company include Colgate, Palmolive, Mennen, Speed Stick, Lady Speed Stick, Softsoap, Irish Spring, Protex, Sorriso, Kolynos, Elmex, TomÃ¢â¬â¢s of Maine, Ajax, Axion, Fabuloso, Soupline, Suavitel, HillÃ¢â¬â¢s Science Diet and HillÃ¢â¬â¢s Prescription Diet. The company operates in two product segments: oral, personal and home care; and pet nutrition. The oral, personal and home care segment operates through four geographic divisions: North America, Latin America, Europe/South Pacific and Greater Asia/Africa, which sell to a variety of retail and wholesale customers and distributors. The oral care business of Colgate includes products such as toothpaste, toothbrushes, oral rinses and dental floss, and pharmaceutical products for dentists and other oral health professionals.The company offers a wide variety of toothpaste, which includes plaque and gingivitis prevention toothpaste, long lasting fresh breath toothpaste, tartar control toothpaste, baking soda and peroxide toothpaste, cavity protection toothpaste, and sensitivity relief toothpaste under the Colgate brand. The company also provides two types of toothbrushes: conventional and electric toothbrushes. The conventional toothbrushes include whole mouth clean toothbrush, fresh breath toothbrush, flexible head toothbrush Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 26 LEADING COMPANIES nd deep cleaning toothbrush. The company markets toothpastes under Colgate To tal and Colgate Max Fresh brands; manual toothbrushes under the Colgate 360Ã ° brand name; and oral rinses under Colgate and Colgate Plax brand names. The personal care business in the US offers shower gels, bar soaps, deodorants, antiperspirants, men's toiletries and liquid hand soaps. Outside the US, the business also offers shampoos and conditioners under the brands Palmolive and Caprice. Colgate markets shower gels through Palmolive and Softsoap brands; bar soaps under Palmolive, Irish Spring and Protex brands; and deodorants and antiperspirants under Speed Stick and Lady Speed Stick brands.The deodorants offered by Colgate comprise gel, stick, fragrance, and antiperspirant/deodorants. The body wash product line includes advanced moisture body wash, nourishing body wash, and fragrance body wash products. The liquid hand soaps consist of antibacterial soap, foaming hand soap, kitchen soap, moisturizing soap, fragrance soap, and decor soap. The bar soap products offering include deodorant protection bar soap, antibacterial bar soap, invigorating bar soap, moisturizing bar soap, and exfoliating bar soap. The men's toiletries include shaving cream, lotion after shave, after shave, splash on after shave, and moisturizing after shave.The home care business manufactures and markets dishwashing liquids, fabric conditioners and household cleaners. Colgate offers a wide variety of dishwashing products under Palmolive, Axion and Ajax brands. The product offering includes hand dishwashing, sensitive skin, antibacterial, oxy cleaning agents, automatic dishwashers, original formula, fruit scent, and floral scent and natural scent dishwashing products. Colgate markets these products under Ajax, Splash, Spring Sensation, and Oxy Plus brands. The fabric conditioner products comprise liquid fabric conditioners, dryer sheets, dark colours formula, floral scent, natural scent, and baby powder scent.The household cleaners are marketed under Fabuloso and Ajax brands and includ e wood cleaner, floor cleaner, all purpose cleaner, powder cleanser, spray formula, pre moistened wipes, and fruit scented products. The pet nutrition segment operates through Hill's pet nutrition brand, which is sold principally through the veterinary professionals and specialty pet retailers. The company supplies specialty pet nutrition products for dogs and cats in over 95 countries. Hill's markets pet foods primarily under two trademarks: Science Diet and Prescription Diet. Science Diet products are sold by authorized pet supply retailers and veterinarians for everyday nutritional needs. The Prescription Diet includes therapeutic products sold by veterinarians which enable them to manage disease conditions in dogs and cats by improving nutrition value in food intake.In the US, Colgate has its manufacturing and warehousing facilities used by the oral, personal and home care segment business in Morristown, New Jersey; Morristown, Tennessee; and Cambridge, Ohio. The pet nutrition s egment has major facilities in Bowling Green, Kentucky; Topeka, Kansas; Commerce, California; and Richmond, Indiana. The primary research centre for oral, personal and home care Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 27 LEADING COMPANIES products is located in Piscataway, New Jersey and the primary research centre for pet nutrition products is located in Topeka, Kansas. Piscataway, New Jersey also serves as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s global data centre.Outside the US, Colgate operates manufacturing facilities for the oral, personal and home care segment in Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, France, Italy, Mexico, Poland, South Africa, Thailand, Venezuela, Vietnam and elsewhere throughout the world. Colgate offers shampoos, bath and shower gels, hand soaps and liquid soaps, as well as shaving products in the personal care segment. The bath and shower gels are marketed under the brand s such as Palmolive Naturals, Palmolive Aroma, and Palmolive Thermal. Shampoos and liquid hand soaps are marketed under the Palmolive Naturals brand, and soaps under Palmolive Naturals and Palmolive Aroma brands.The company markets its hair care product under Palmolive Halo brand name. Key Metrics Colgate-Palmolive Company generated revenues of $15. 6 billion in the financial year (FY) ended December 2010, an increase of 1. 5% over FY2009. The company's net income totaled $2. 2 billion in FY2010, a decrease of 3. 8% over FY2009. The oral, personal and home care segment recorded revenues of $13. 5 billion in FY2010, an increase of 2. 2% over FY2009. Greater Asia/Africa accounted for 22. 2% of the total revenues of the oral, personal and home care segment in FY2010. Revenues from Greater Asia/Africa reached $3 billion in FY2010, an increase of 12. 9% over FY2009.Table 10: $ million Colgate-Palmolive Company: key financials ($) 2006 12,237. 7 1,353. 4 9,138. 0 7,727. 1 34,700 2007 13,7 89. 7 1,737. 4 10,112. 0 7,825. 8 36,000 2008 15,329. 9 1,957. 2 9,979. 3 7,935. 0 36,600 2009 15,327. 0 2,291. 0 11,134. 0 7,877. 0 38,100 2010 15,564. 0 2,203. 0 11,172. 0 8,355. 0 39,200 Revenues Net income (loss) Total assets Total liabilities Employees Source: company filings DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 28 LEADING COMPANIES Table 11: Ratio Colgate-Palmolive Company: key financial ratios 2006 11. 1% 7. 4% 7. 4% 8. 0% 84. 6% 15. % $352,671 $39,003 2007 12. 6% 12. 7% 10. 7% 1. 3% 77. 4% 18. 1% $383,047 $48,261 2008 12. 8% 11. 2% (1. 3%) 1. 4% 79. 5% 19. 5% $418,850 $53,475 2009 14. 9% N. M 11. 6% (0. 7%) 70. 7% 21. 7% $402,283 $60,131 2010 14. 2% 1. 5% 0. 3% 6. 1% 74. 8% 19. 8% $397,041 $56,199 Profit margin Revenue growth Asset growth Liabilities growth Debt/asset ratio Return on assets Revenue per employee Profit per employee Source: company filings D ATAMONITOR Figure 14: Colgate-Palmolive Company: revenues & profitability Source: company filings DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 29LEADING COMPANIES Figure 15: Colgate-Palmolive Company: assets & liabilities Source: company filings DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 30 LEADING COMPANIES Unilever Table 12: Unilever: key facts Unilever House, 100 Victoria Embankment, London EC4Y 0DY, GBR 44 20 7822 5252 44 20 7822 5951 www. unilever. com December UL New York DATAMONITOR Head office: Telephone: Fax: Website: Financial year-end: Ticker: Stock exchange: Source: company website Unilever is a global manufacturer and marketer of consumer goods in the food, personal and homecare segments.Unilever operates under a dual structure. The group has two parent companies: Unilever NV and Unilever plc. Unilever NV is a public limited company registered in the Netherlands, while Unilever plc is a public limited company registered in the UK and Wales. The two parent companies, Unilever NV and Unilever plc, along with the group companies, operate as a single economic entity: Unilever. It operates through subsidiaries in Germany, Switzerland, France, the UK, the US, and China and has operations in over 170 countries. The group's primary operating segments comprises three geographic regions: Asia, Africa, Central and Eastern Europe; the Americas; and Western Europe.Although Unilever's operations are managed on a geographical basis, the group manages its products under four categories: savoury, dressings and spreads; ice cream and beverages; personal care; and home care and other operations. These categories are UnileverÃ¢â¬â¢s principal product areas. The savoury, dressings and spreads product category includes products like soups, bou illons, sauces, snacks, mayonnaise, salad dressings, olive oil, margarines, spreads and cooking products such as liquid margarines, and frozen food products. Unilever's major brands in this segment includes: Knorr, Hellmann's, Becel/Flora (Healthy Heart), Rama/Blue Band (Family Goodness), Calve, Wish-Bone, Amora, Ragu and Bertolli.The company markets its frozen food products under Findus, Sagit, Cogesal and Iglo brand names among others. The ice cream and beverages product category includes sales of ice cream, tea-based beverages, weight management products, and nutritionally enhanced staples sold in developing markets. Unilever's major brands in ice cream are sold under the international Heart brand which includes Cornetto, Magnum, Carte Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 31 LEADING COMPANIES dÃ¢â¬â¢Or and Solero, WallÃ¢â¬â¢s, Kibon, Algida and Ola. Its tea-based bever age brands include Lipton, Brooke Bond and PG Tips.In addition, Unilever has weight management products such as Slim Fast, and nutritionally enhanced products include Annapurna and AdeS brands. The personal care product category offers skin care, facial care and hair care products; deodorants and anti-perspirants; and oral care products. The company offers six global brands which are the core of company's business in the mass skin care, daily hair care and deodorants product areas that includes Dove, Lux, Rexona (including Sure and Degree), Sunsilk (including Seda/Sedal), Axe/Lynx and PondÃ¢â¬â¢s. Other key brands include Suave, Clear, Lifebuoy and Vaseline, along with Signal and Close Up in the oral care category.In December 2010, the company acquired the personal care business of the Sara Lee Corporation, which was announced in September 2009. The Sara Lee brand includes Sanex, Radox and Duschdas. Home care and other operations include household products, such as laundry tablets , powders and liquids, soap bars and cleaning products. Unilever's global brands in home care products include Cif, Comfort, Domestos, Omo, Radiant, Surf and Sunlight brands. Other brands marketed by this segment include Omo Surf, Comfort, Radiant and Skip. During late 2008, Unilever further expanded its household and personal hygiene portfolio by acquiring Cosmivoire, a Cote d'Ivoire-based manufacturer and supplier of food, household, and personal hygiene products.Unilever also announced plans to expand its Asia Pacific operations within home care division. In line with this, Unilever Sri Lanka made an offer to acquire the trademark of Wonderlight Consumer Products Company, in February 2009. Wonderlight Consumer Products Company is a Sri Lankan-based manufacturer of laundry soaps, baby soap, herbal soap, toilet soap, washing powder, scouring powder, and dish powder. Key Metrics Unilever generated revenues of $58. 6 billion in the financial year (FY) ended December 2010, an increase of 11. 1% as compared to 2009. The company's net income reached $5. 6 billion in FY2010, an increase of 25. 9% over FY2009. UnileverÃ¢â¬â¢s personal care division recorded revenues of $18. billion in FY2010, an increase of 16. 2% over FY2009. Asia, Africa and Central & Eastern Europe, Unilever's largest geographical market, accounted for 40% of the total revenues in FY2010. Revenues from Asia, Africa and Central & Eastern Europe reached $23. 4 billion in FY2010, an increase of 18. 7% over FY2009. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 32 LEADING COMPANIES Table 13: $ million Unilever: key financials ($) 2006 52,514. 3 6,285. 8 49,109. 8 33,647. 7 179,000 2007 53,236. 3 5,150. 5 49,414. 5 32,433. 0 174,000 2008 53,681. 4 6,659. 3 47,877. 8 34,137. 9 174,000 2009 52,754. 4,464. 3 49,035. 6 32,429. 0 163,000 2010 58,634. 5 5,622. 1 54,534. 5 34,560. 5 167,000 Revenues Net incom e (loss) Total assets Total liabilities Employees Source: company filings DATAMONITOR Table 14: Ã¢â ¬ million Unilever: key financials (Ã¢â ¬) 2006 39,642. 0 4,745. 0 37,072. 0 25,400. 0 2007 40,187. 0 3,888. 0 37,302. 0 24,483. 0 2008 40,523. 0 5,027. 0 36,142. 0 25,770. 0 2009 39,823. 0 3,370. 0 37,016. 0 24,480. 0 2010 44,262. 0 4,244. 0 41,167. 0 26,089. 0 Revenues Net income (loss) Total assets Total liabilities Source: company filings DATAMONITOR Table 15: Ratio Unilever: key financial ratios 2006 12. 0% 3. 2% (6. 1%) (17. 4%) 68. 5% 12. % $293,376 $35,116 2007 9. 7% 1. 4% 0. 6% (3. 6%) 65. 6% 10. 5% $305,956 $29,601 2008 12. 4% 0. 8% (3. 1%) 5. 3% 71. 3% 13. 7% $308,514 $38,272 2009 8. 5% (1. 7%) 2. 4% (5. 0%) 66. 1% 9. 2% $323,645 $27,388 2010 9. 6% 11. 1% 11. 2% 6. 6% 63. 4% 10. 9% $351,105 $33,665 Profit margin Revenue growth Asset growth Liabilities growth Debt/asset ratio Return on assets Revenue per employee Profit per employee Source: company filings DATAMONITOR Ph ilippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 33 LEADING COMPANIES Figure 16: Unilever: revenues & profitability Source: company filings DATAMONITORFigure 17: Unilever: assets & liabilities Source: company filings DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 34 DISTRIBUTION MARKET DISTRIBUTION Independent Retailers form the leading distribution channel in the Philippine soap market, accounting for a 52. 8% share of the total market's value. Specialist Retailers accounts for a further 14. 4% of the market. Table 16: Channel Independent Retailers Specialist Retailers Supermarkets / hypermarkets Others Total Source: Datamonitor Philippines soap market distribution: % share, by value, 2010(e) % Share 52. 8% 14. 4% 14. 4% 18. 5% 100% DATAMONITORFigure 18: Philippines soap market d istribution: % share, by value, 2010(e) Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 35 MARKET FORECASTS MARKET FORECASTS Market value forecast In 2015, the Philippine soap market is forecast to have a value of $156. 8 million, an increase of 18. 6% since 2010. The compound annual growth rate of the market in the period 2010Ã¢â¬â15 is predicted to be 3. 5%. Table 17: Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAGR: 2010Ã¢â¬â15 Source: Datamonitor Philippines soap market value forecast: $ million, 2010Ã¢â¬â15 $ million 132. 2 137. 0 141. 9 146. 8 151. 7 156. PHP million 5,982. 8 6,199. 1 6,417. 5 6,639. 2 6,862. 1 7,092. 5 Ã¢â ¬ million 99. 6 103. 2 106. 9 110. 6 114. 3 118. 1 % Growth 3. 7% 3. 6% 3. 5% 3. 5% 3. 4% 3. 4% 3. 5% DATAMONITOR Figure 19: Philippines soap market value forecast: $ million, 2010Ã¢â¬â15 Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR Phil ippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 36 MARKET FORECASTS Market volume forecast In 2015, the Philippine soap market is forecast to have a volume of 103. 9 million units, an increase of 10. 9% since 2010. The compound annual growth rate of the market in the period 2010Ã¢â¬â15 is predicted to be 2. 1%.Table 18: Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAGR: 2010Ã¢â¬â15 Source: Datamonitor Philippines soap market volume forecast: million units, 2010Ã¢â¬â15 million units 93. 7 96. 0 98. 1 100. 1 102. 0 103. 9 % Growth 2. 4% 2. 5% 2. 2% 2. 0% 1. 9% 1. 9% 2. 1% DATAMONITOR Figure 20: Philippines soap market volume forecast: million units, 2010Ã¢â¬â15 Source: Datamonitor DATAMONITOR Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 37 MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS Ta ble 19: Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010(e) Source: Datamonitor Philippines size of population (million), 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Population (million) 86. 0 87. 6 89. 3 91. 0 92. 7 % Growth 2. 0% 1. 9% 1. 9% 1. 9% 1. 9% DATAMONITOR Table 20: Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010(e)Philippines gdp (constant 2000 prices, $ billion), 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Constant 2000 Prices, $ billion 99. 2 106. 2 110. 2 111. 3 119. 2 % Growth 5. 4% 7. 1% 3. 7% 1. 1% 7. 1% DATAMONITOR Source: Datamonitor Table 21: Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010(e) Philippines gdp (current prices, $ billion), 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Current Prices, $ billion 117. 8 144. 3 170. 2 165. 2 183. 6 % Growth 20. 2% 22. 5% 18. 0% (3. 0%) 11. 2% DATAMONITOR Source: Datamonitor Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 38 MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS Table 22: Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010(e) Philippines inflation, 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Inflation Rate (%) 6. % 2. 8% 9. 3% 3. 2% 3. 8% DATAMONITOR Source: Datamonitor Table 23: Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010(e) Philippines consumer price index (absolute), 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Consumer Price Index (2000 = 100) 137. 9 141. 8 155. 0 159. 9 166. 0 DATAMONITOR Source: Datamonitor Table 24: Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Philippines exchange rate, 2006Ã¢â¬â10 Exchange rate ($/PHP) 51. 4087 46. 2140 44. 5728 47. 7318 45. 2396 Exchange rate (Ã¢â ¬/PHP) 64. 5003 63. 2358 65. 2211 66. 5482 60. 0503 DATAMONITOR Source: Datamonitor Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 39 APPENDIX APPENDIX MethodologyDatamonitor Industry Profiles draw on extensive primary and secondary research, all aggregated, analyzed, cross-checked and presented in a consistent and accessible style. Review of in-house databases Ã¢â¬â Created using 250,000+ industry interviews and consumer surveys and supported by analysis from industry exp erts using highly complex modeling & forecasting tools, DatamonitorÃ¢â¬â¢s in-house databases provide the foundation for all related industry profiles Preparatory research Ã¢â¬â We also maintain extensive in-house databases of news, analyst commentary, company profiles and macroeconomic & demographic information, which enable our researchers to build an accurate market overview Definitions Ã¢â¬â Market definitions are standardized to allow comparison from country to country.The parameters of each definition are carefully reviewed at the start of the research process to ensure they match the requirements of both the market and our clients Extensive secondary research activities ensure we are always fully up-to-date with the latest industry events and trends Datamonitor aggregates and analyzes a number of secondary information sources, including: National/Governmental statistics International data (official international sources) National and International trade associations B roker and analyst reports Company Annual Reports Business information libraries and databases Modeling & forecasting tools Ã¢â¬â Datamonitor has developed powerful tools that allow quantitative and qualitative data to be combined with related macroeconomic and demographic drivers to create market models and forecasts, which can then be refined according to specific competitive, regulatory and emand-related factors Continuous quality control ensures that our processes and profiles remain focused, accurate and up-to-date Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 40 APPENDIX Industry associations International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products Square Marie-Louise 49, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium Tel. : 32 2 230 8371 Fax: 32 2 230 8288 www. aise-net. org Related Datamonitor research Industry profiles Soap in Malaysia Soap in Thailand Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 41 APPENDIX DisclaimerAll Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher, Datamonitor plc. The facts of this report are believed to be correct at the time of publication but cannot be guaranteed. Please note that the findings, conclusions and recommendations that Datamonitor delivers will be based on information gathered in good faith from both primary and secondary sources, whose accuracy we are not always in a position to guarantee. As such Datamonitor can accept no liability hatever for actions taken based on any information that may subsequently prove to be incorrect. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. This profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocop ied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 42 ABOUT DATAMONITOR ABOUT DATAMONITOR The Datamonitor Group is a world-leading provider of premium global business information, delivering independent data, analysis and opinion across the Automotive, Consumer Markets, Energy & Utilities, Financial Services, Logistics & Express, Pharmaceutical & Healthcare, Retail, Technology and Telecoms industries. Combining our industry knowledge and experience, we assist over 6,000 of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading companies in making better strategic and operational decisions.Delivered online via our user-friendly web platforms, our market intelligence products and services ensure that you will achieve your desired commercial goals by giving you the insight you need to best respond to your competitive environment. Premium Reports Datamonitor's premium reports are based on primary research with industry panels and consumers. We gather information on market segmentation, market growth and pricing, competitor s and products. Our experts then interpret this data to produce detailed forecasts and actionable recommendations, helping you create new business opportunities and ideas. Summary Reports Our series of company, industry and country profiles complements our premium products, providing top-level information on 30,000 companies, 3,000 industries and 100 countries.While they do not contain the highly detailed breakdowns found in premium reports, profiles give you the most important qualitative and quantitative summary information you need Ã¢â¬â including predictions and forecasts. Datamonitor consulting We hope that the data and analysis in this profile will help you make informed and imaginative business decisions. If you have further requirements, DatamonitorÃ¢â¬â¢s consulting team may be able to help you. For more information about DatamonitorÃ¢â¬â¢s consulting capabilities, please contact us directly at [emailÃ protected] com. Philippines Ã¢â¬â Soap Ã © Datamonitor. Thi s profile is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied 0115 Ã¢â¬â 0208 Ã¢â¬â 2010 Page 43
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