Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Ethical Foundations Of Sallie Mcfague And Thich Nhat Hanh Assignment

Ethical Foundations Of Sallie Mcfague And Thich Nhat Hanh - Assignment Example Sallie is an American feminist as well as a Christian theologian, known for her exclusive talks and writings on ecology. She has written a lot about care for the earth as she believes the earth is God’s ‘body’. McFague writes that human beings construct the worlds that they live in but later forget that they constructed them. This, she writes as the reason there is much destruction of the environment that God has given to His people. By citing earth as God’s body, she compels humans to take care of the earth and in overall, the environment that God has given to them (McFague, 12-77). Caring for the environment will ensure that humans will change the things they value and will never at some point disembody God. McFague has used theology in exploring urgent issues on climate change. In her book, A New Climate for Theology: God, the World, and Global Warming, she begins by accounting for the evidence of climate change due to the existence of science. Additiona lly, she demonstrates the necessity of theology to be included in this global issue. Her reason is that the church is seen as an ecological catholicity that is committed to a just and also sustainable existence of the creation made by God. As such, she criticizes all humans who reinforce individualistic regimes resulting to climate change (McFague, 106-200). Hence, she calls for all humanity to embrace inter-relationship and interdependence with all life supporting mechanisms on the planet.Thich Nhat Hanh is a Vietnamese Buddhist monk.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Diversity and Inclusion in Work with Children Essay Example for Free

Diversity and Inclusion in Work with Children Essay Equality, diversity and inclusion in work with children and young people Assignment 1 Within a school, equality, diversity and inclusion is very important. It is their duty to make sure all children have equal access to the curriculum. Whether they are a different race, culture, gender or have a special need or disability, it is important that they are supported and have a right to participate and be treated equal; this is known as inclusion. As part of this it is important that schools and other professionals support and promote cultural diversity in schools and the wider society, breaking down any discriminatory barriers to learning. (1. 2) In a school participation means that everyone has to be involved and this involves the inclusion of the children. The Government is committed to children’s rights and participation. Under Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), children and young people have the right to express their views, and for these to be respected by adults when making decisions on matters that affect them. This means that the schools have to involve the children in the planning, delivery and evaluation of the curriculum on a daily basis, asking children what they think, what works and what they think could be better. Children should be given opportunities to express their opinion in matters that affect their lives. Effective participation gives children and young people the opportunity to make a positive contribution to their learning and to develop the skills, confidence and self-esteem they will need for the future. Every child has the right to access the curriculum, Equality of access. This means that children can work to the best of their ability and be treated equally within their learning. The schools have a duty to support these rights and they must be reflected through their policies and procedures and must comply with current legislations and codes of practice. The Equality Act 2010, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989, Children Act 1989/2004, SENDA 2001 and SEN Code of Practice 2002 are the relevant legislations that give guidance on how to understand the childrens rights to participation and equality of access. Promoting participation and equal access makes sure that the school is meeting the 5 outcomes of ECM/HCAM and will therefore provide children with the best possible opportunities to to achieve to the best of their ability within the curriculum and their school life. (1. ) Cultural diversity provides a framework to bringing children together who would otherwise be naturally separated by cultural barriers. Pupils cultural development involves pupils acquiring an understanding of cultural traditions and an ability to appreciate and respond to a variety of aesthetic experiences. They acquire a respect for their own culture and that of others, an interest in others ways of doing things and curiosity about differences. They dev elop the knowledge, skills, understanding, qualities and attitudes they need to understand, appreciate and contribute to culture. Schools have to promote cultural diversity and follow legislations relating to equality and discrimination, it is the law not to discriminate and this is set out in the Equality Act 2010. There are many ways that a school can promote acceptance and respect of different cultures throughout the school, this could be through teaching in the classroom where the pupils can explore varied cultural backgrounds, learning about celebrations that different cultures participate in for example multicultural festivals that take place different times throughout the year. Also many schools now have welcome signs which are written in languages that pupils within the school speak, displays are also used with work of the children these are a brilliant way of showing the pupils understanding of others cultures and provides information for all within the school. All staff must act as role models and promote cultural diversity this helps reduce prejudice and discrimination and if staff are putting this in place then it will influence pupils to be tolerant of other cultures and with this helps the children understand the diverse society to which they belong. Pupils who understand cultural diversity will be more likely to participate and those of different cultures will feel more involved as they can help with the learning of their culture, with this it will help children in schools and outside in the wider society. In conclusion, schools who promote equality and inclusion through participation and a value of cultural diversity are encouraging children to ave respect for others and not to discriminate and promotes independence for the children. Childrens rights to equal access has to be supported by quality teaching, school policies and procedures. Childrens rights are protected by the law but if the schools follow the laws and provide the vital information through learning, children are more likely to respect others and appreciate their responsibilities to others.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Truth About Physics And Religion :: essays research papers

The Truth About Physics and Religion Many people believe that physics and religion are separate entities. They claim that physics deals only with the objective, material world, while religion deals only with the world of values. It is obvious, from these, and from many other comparisons, that conflicts have arisen between physics and religion. Many are convinced that the two fields completely oppose each other, and are not related in any ways. Many people, who follow a particular religion, feel offended by the claims that physicists have made, while physicists believe that religion has no basis in reality. I will show, however, that these conflicts are founded on a misunderstanding, and that there is no division between physics and religion. I will also prove that the misunderstanding lies in the parables of religion and in the statements made by physicists. Furthermore, I will show that only physicists can really know the truth of physics, and only religious followers can know the truth of that religion; everyone else has to take it on faith.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Many people believe that physics and religion are entirely separate. They claim that physics is only concerned with discovering what is true or false, while religion is concerned with what is good or evil. Scientists appear to agree that â€Å"physics is the manner in which we argue about the objective side of reality.† Religious followers, on the other hand, agree that â€Å"religion is the way we express the subjective decisions that help us choose the standards by which we live.† Although these definitions seem to be contrasting, an important element remains absent, an element that must first be considered before religion and physics can be compared.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Those who think that religion has no basis in reality also believe that there is an â€Å"obvious† separation between the two fields. They think that religion is a jumble of false assertions, with no basis in reality. Paul Dirac, a physicist, once said: The very idea of God is a product of the human imagination. It is quite understandable why primitive people, who were so much more exposed to the overpowering forces of nature than we are today, should have personified these forces in fear and trembling. But nowadays, when we understand so many natural processes, we have no need for such solutions. Dirac, and those who think the same way, however, fails to consider the essential element that has caused many to misunderstand the relationship between physics and religion. What they fail to realize is that religion uses language in quite a different way from science. The language of religion is more closely related to the language of poetry than to the language of science.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Theme of Loneliness in I Am the King of the Castle Essay -- Susan

The novel â€Å"I am the King of the Castle† clearly explores the themes of loneliness, sadness and depression in its plot. All of the main characters have difficulties with relationships and end up facing depressive moments and experiences, some insignificant but some crucial and terrifying. Joseph Hooper (father), Edmund Hooper (son) and Charles Kingshaw are three characters showing explicit loneliness almost throughout the whole novel. Their loneliness is shown by several reasons and caused by a large number of factors, most involving family issues. Joseph Hooper’s loneliness is caused mainly by his everyday lifestyle and habits. The loss of his wife made him deserted and very distant from his own son, Edmund Hooper. He is absent from the life of his son, ending up with having no one at all. Susan Hill makes us notice Joseph Hooper ´s loneliness in several ways using special techniques. It is easy to tell he is lonely without having to read much into the book or into his character. He doesn’t have a wife, and is not close to his son at all, neither by companionship nor by simply just educating him. Susan Hill also describes him in a very insecure way. We can notice this because he is always trying to prove himself to other people, even to his son, showing immaturity and lack of confidence. His timidity allows him to be easily vulnerable: â€Å"He shrank from the impression in the boy’s eyes, from his knowingness. He was his mother’s son.† Joseph hooper is so apprehensive, he is threatened by his own son. We can notice he is also a kind of â€Å"desperate† guy by the way he acts towards Miss Kingshaw and by the fact that he wants her recieves her in his house without even knowing her well enough. His insecur... ...alone with no one looking after him leads him into a very narrowed mind, that suggests that he needs to be alone and be the best when actually the thing he most wants is enchantment and worship. Kingshaw’s suffering mostly comes from his mother’s atitude, but he is so used to also being alone that he dosen’t attemp to save himself or ask for help, he gives up taking death as an easier option than persistance and fighting. Susan Hill’s cinematic view, helps to create tension and increases the characters feelings. The theme loneliness is carried through the whole book. It is actually the principal subject and doesen’t even get better at the end. As well as leading one of the characters to suicide, the loneliness remais because Hooper got what he wanted at the end but he is in fact still alone and miseralble with the same deterring father and Miss Kingshaw.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Joe Gargery’s Character Analysis Essay

‘†¦all(Dicken’s characters), no matter how briefly sketched are real.(CLIFFS NOTES P.54).Charles Dickens has the ability to make his characters very close to human, if not human. Charles Dickens’ novel, Great Expectations, is mainly based on a character named Pip who goes from ‘rags’ to ‘riches’. Joe Gargery, Pip’s brother-in-law, lives with Pip and Mrs. Joe in the marsh country. He is a blacksmith who doesn’t make a lot of money but manages to stay a mild and good-natured man. But what causes Joe to stay so mild and good-natured throughout Pip’s transformation? The truth can only be revealed through studying his relationship to Pip, his importance to the plot, and the theme he best represents. When Pip’s parents die, his sister decides to bring him up ‘by the hand'(p.559). She has a very hard time with Pip, and in the future says, ‘I’d never do it[bring Pip up] again!'(p.560). Then she marries Joe Gargery. Joe and Pip form this ‘everlasting’ relationship, mainly because they were both ‘brought up by the hand'(p.559). Joe always looks out for Pip and helps Pip out. Mrs. Joe would never do this. For example, when Pip was coming back from the graveyard after his first encounter with the convict, he find out that Mrs. Joe had gone on a rampage with the tickler only by Joe telling him. When Mrs. Joe returns, she throws Pip at Joe and Joe guards Pip from any harm Mrs. Joe can do. Though these incidents, Joe develops a steady, everlasting relationship with Pip. When Pip receives word of his expectation, he also found out that in order to get his expectation and become a gentleman, he must go to London. Pip’s reason for wanting to become a gentleman is mainly for Estella. He will do anything to impress Estella and win her heart. Pip knew he had to go if he were ever going to win Estella’s heart. Joe had built up such a strong relationship with Pip that he didn’t want anything to do with the obstruction of Pip’s future. Another reason for Joe loving Pip is when Pip was sick and in debt, Joe went to London and helped Pip. Joe paid his debts(even though he himself had money problems) and stayed at Pip’s bedside every second he was sick. According to Joe, †Ã¢â‚¬ ¦you and me was ever friends.† (p.706) Joe must love Pip more than anything in the world if he flew to London just to help an ‘old friend’. Pip’s relationship to Joe wasn’t quite  as ‘smooth’ as Joe’s relationship to Pip. At the beginning of the novel, Pip and Joe had an equal relationship, the both cared and helped each other. Joe, for example, let Pip know of Mrs. Joe’s rampage and Pip taught Joe to read. So they both had an equal relationship at the beginning. But when Pip received word of his expectation, things changed. Pip only concentrates on being a gentleman and winning over Estella. Pip doesn’t think about Joe much anymore. When Joe went to visit Pip, and Joe kept trying to put his hat on the corner of the chimney piece without realizing it is too big, Pip becomes very annoyed with him. ‘I felt impatient of him and out of temper with him.'(p.631) If things were like home, Pip would teach Joe, not be annoyed at him. But Joe, being this mild and good-natured man, blames the whole incident on himself. The relationships between Pip and Joe are very different throughout the novel. Without Joe in the novel, Pip wouldn’t have ever received his great expectation. Joe is the ‘man of the house’. Joe provides the family with money. This money gives them a place to stay, food, and clothing. When Pip met the first convict, he demanded a file and wittles. Where would Pip get these items if Joe were not there to provide the money, which provided the food, shelter, and clothing? Pip would not be able to provide his convict with the file and wittles and the other convict would take Pip’s heart and lungs out. Then, there would be nobody to give the expectation to and there would also be no reason to give the expectation. The main reason for the convict giving the expectation was the last person who did something good for him. But Pip never gives the wittles and file to the convict so there was no last good thing done. So, without Joe, there would be no expectation. The theme Joe best represents is ‘Sophisticated manners are not nearly as important as genuine kindness and affection.’ At the beginning of the novel, Joe and Pip’s did not show sophisticated manners but stayed friends because they had kindness and affection for each other. But as Pip received his expectation, became a gentleman, and went to London, he lived in an environment of sophisticated manners. Manners in which Joe were not familiar with. But Joe did not care about how sophisticated Pip became. All he cared about was the kindness and affection they had together. That was all that  mattered in their friendship to Joe. Overall, Joe’s relationship to Pip gets an A+ because his thoughts of Pip stayed steady throughout the novel no matter what Pip did to Joe. Pip’s relationship to Joe gets a C because at the beginning he felt the same way about Joe but his expectation changed his feelings about Joe. Nothing should be able to break up a strong relationship. Joe’s importance to the plot received an A because the plot would not be able to continue without Joe. Joe’s representation to the theme received an A because Joe was the one who didn’t care about sophisticated manners, but only genuine kindness and affection. ‘†¦There has been no writer of fiction in the western world who had Dicken’s genius for creating such an infinite variety of characters.'(CLIFFS NOTES p.54) Charles Dickens has created Joe as an amazing character in the novel, Great Expectations.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Media horror trailer breif Essays

Media horror trailer breif Essays Media horror trailer breif Essay Media horror trailer breif Essay For my media coursework I will be making a horror film trailer, this will be done by filming and editing ourselves. The sub genre of our trailer is a slasher film (sometimes referred to as body count films and dead teenager movies) involving a psychopathic killer, who stalks and murders a series of victims, in this case teenagers as it follows the typical conventions of a slasher, which helps the audience associated the trailer to a certain genre, also another trademark for this type is that the killer wears a mask to hide his/her identity. Although this is a well used method, it still leaves the audience in panic. I studied past years horror trailers and analysed what worked, and what didnt, I found the more successful trailers used teenagers as the victims and sound tracked with an eerie, fast paced song brought more tension to the trailer as it doesnt give the audience much insight on how the film will out end, but leaves enigma codes to suggest possible outcomes. It highlighted that even the smallest elements, such as a tree in the background, can ruin the mise-en-scene. We learnt filming and editing techniques by creating short films. Also we studied a Channel 4 TV programme, 50 Scarriest Moments and depicted the most effective methods used to create impact on its target audience. The target audience will be aimed at the 15-24 year old bracket and by using teenage characters it allows the viewer to be able to relate to these victims and increases the disturbing atmosphere so that they can maintain interest in the text. The title for the film will be Basement, the audience can also relate t o this as most houses have a basement which they feel comfortable in, so this trailer will go against this and present what evil can occur in a place where some feel safe. A usual assumption with horror films is that itll leave you in discomfort and fear of whats safe but the genre also has its pleasures. These are because when youre in a cinema or at home watching a film youre in the comfort of others and you can escape from reality and live anothers life, but without the physical pain, which cant be done any other way, but films allow this. I would categorize this as a date movie because its not overly gory, like in splasher style films such as the Saw trilogy where it can leave the audience feeling slightly nauseous. The function of a trailer is to advertise the final film which would be for theatrical release at cinemas. The narrative will follow a non-linear pattern and fits into Todorovs theory. It will consist of an equilibrium, dis-equilibrium and a new equilibrium. The trailer will depict snapshots of various scenes and will have a un-close ending, this is so the whole storyline is completely given away so it leaves the audience with questions that provoke them to go see the full length film. The character playing the killer in the trailer is a tall, well built male with ragged, long hair. In terms of iconography, a large male fits into a stereotype used commonly throughout horror genres. Clothing is also used to represent good and bad characters as certain colours have connotations, for example the killer would be wearing a dark, scruffy coat with glimpses of red to symbolise danger and evil, but the teenagers would wear lighter colours to show innocence and purity. It wont be a dis-figuered human or even monster-like but instead a normal looking man which you may least expect to conatin so muc h evil, can be more frightening as youd expect them to be harmless. The trailer will have a fast paced song that builds tension, supported by quick cuts and dynamic transitions to keep the audience engaged. Simple techniques that can be use to represent time, mood, place and events will be added, for example, putting a grey scale onto a clip symbolises it was in the past or was one of the characters memories. Also if seens containing danger are shot with a low-key lighting it will suggest the sinister thret. In terms of music i will mainly using a song from an professional artist, but to create sound effects and to select how the music builds up i can experiment with a programme called Garage Band. The trailer will be topped off with a voice-over spoken in a deap, male tone which could be represented or linked to the killer. The editing software i will use to edit the trailer will be Sony Vegas 7.0 and possibly I-Movie which is on Apple Mac computers, the scenes will be filmed used a mini-DV camera attached to a tripod when needed to get still shots and panning shots without it looking like a home movie. Tasks are shared within the group so we all do an equal load.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Dark Romanticism Essays

Dark Romanticism Essays Dark Romanticism Paper Dark Romanticism Paper 4. Define â€Å"Dark Romanticism† as you understand it by discussing two works by different authors. Account for the rise of this kind of writing in America and evaluate its appeal and significance then and now. The Dark Side of Romanticism Romantic literary texts focus on the expression of emotion. Authors during the Romantic period developed and integrated the idea of the individual being the main focus in life. Romantic authors focused on the individual being at the center of their own happiness and destiny and evil dwelling outside mankind. Dark Romantics believed that evil is not only found in nature and in other people but evil also dwells inside every human being. Dark Romantics argued that earlier writers had ignored the darker side of humanity. The Dark Romantics’ focus was to illustrate to readers what really makes up mankind. They present individuals as self destructive as opposed to writers in the past such as Puritans that focused on mankind prevailing over evil through the grace of God. Individuals in Dark Romanticism literature are often portrayed failing when they are trying to make themselves better people. Instead of focusing on the good of mankind, Dark Romantics wrote about the tragic and demented side of human life. This pessimistic and skeptic attitude makes way for murky, horrid, and inexplicable thoughts. But these demented thoughts are what make Dark Romantic literature so out of the ordinary and thrilling compared to literature of the past. Dark Romanticism is just that, very dark. Nature is deeply rooted in Dark Romanticism literature but in shady, sinister ways. Evil is found in the literary images of ghouls and ghosts and other creepy beings. For Dark Romantics, the world is cold and mysterious. Gothic fiction helped to inspire many Dark Romantic works. Gothic fiction can be described as a subgenre of Dark Romanticism. It shares many similar characteristics with Dark Romantic literature. Both include themes of darkness and mystery but Gothic fiction was more aimed to tell tales of horror instead of stories of mankind failing to make change for the better. Charles Brockden-Brown’s, â€Å"Somnambulism† conveys the inexplicable and horrific qualities of Gothic and Dark Romanticism literature through his features and styles of writing. The literary works of William Godwin and the suggestion of feminism inspired Brockden-Brown. Constantia personifies this in â€Å"Somnambulism†. She is not a weak and nervous character. Brockden-Brown portrays her as independent and strong by having her confidently journey home with her father at night in the dark and weary woods. This story is told from first person point of view, which really puts readers inside the sick mind of Althrope. This gives a first hand account of the events. This makes it easier for readers to understand the thoughts going through Althrope’s head and adds intensity and mystery to the story: And after all what is this groundless and ridiculous persuasion that governed me? Had I profited nothing by experience of the effects of similar follies? Was I never to attend to the lesson of sobriety and truth? How ignominious to be thus the slave of a fortuitous and inexplicable impulse! To be the victim of terrors more chimerical than those which haunt the dreams of idiots and children! They  can describe clearly, and attribute a real existence to the object of their terrors. Not so can I. The quick pace of the sentences in this story creates the feeling of paranoia. Althrope’s questioning of himself supports the Dark Romantic’s idea that this genre of literature focuses on the demented and unfortunate side of human life and mankind’s inability to change for the better. The main character of the story is not a vampire or ghost or ghoul often seen in Dark Romantic and Gothic literature. The killer is a regular member of society who snaps. Althrope is used to living within the constraints of society but he struggles with this. As a sleepwalker, he acts unconsciously on the obsessive thoughts filling his mind day after day. This is a clear image of the dark side of mankind. In â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart,† Edgar Allen Poe depicts a gruesome tale. His use of dark imagery and harsh words make this story an unmistakable product of the Dark Romantic period. Poe’s use of the first person narrator adds an important dimension to the story. The narrator’s thoughts are eating him alive and Poe clearly portrays this to readers by repeating words and having  the narrator constantly question himself: I paced the floor to and fro with heavy strides, as if excited to fury by the observations of the men but the noise steadily increased. Oh God! what could I do? I foamed I raved I swore! I swung the chair upon which I had been sitting, and grated it upon the boards, but the noise arose over all and continually increased. It grew louder louder louder! And still the men chatted pleasantly, and smiled. Was it possible they heard not? Almighty God! no, no! They heard! they suspected! they knew! they were making a mockery of my horror! -this I thought, and this I think. But anything was better than this agony! This makes the narrator untrustworthy and unreliable. This also helps to illustrate Dark Romanticism’s questioning of mankind. Poe focuses on how unstable the narrator is and how the unconscious mind can destroy a man. The narrator drove himself absolutely crazy over the old man’s mysterious eyeball. He was obsessed with the eye and this caused the narrator to have extreme paranoia. The reader never finds out exactly why the creepy eyeball haunts the narrator. He explains that he does not know why he feels this anger towards the old man because the old man has never wronged him but he has built up hostility towards the old man and his eerie eye. This adds the element of distress and obscurity to the story. The narrator remarks, â€Å"And have I not told you that what you mistake for madness is but over acuteness of the senses? † Eventually the eyeball haunts the narrator to the point that his disturbed thoughts cause him to murder the old man. He believes that this will help him escape the terror of the eyeball but in reality it does the exact opposite. The eyeball is no longer staring at him but his guilty conscious is shining a bright spotlight on him. This portrays the Dark Romantic idea that every human has a dark side. The dark side of a person can cause them to do things for no apparent reason. Dark Romanticism was quite different from the literature that emerged from the Transcendentalist and Puritanism period. Dark Romantics often concentrated on the tragic dimension of life. Instead of reading about characters that were one with nature, God and themselves, readers were hearing tales of corrupted individuals at war with their thoughts. Dark Romantics focused on the menacing side of mankind. They pointed out that humans have their flaws and things will not always go as planned. Dark Romanticism helped to illustrate the idea that evil not only exists in external forms but it also exists inside the mind of mankind. Unlike Puritans, Dark Romantics saw evil living inside of human beings, not something that God presented individuals with to help restore their grace with God. This suggestion was not explored until Dark Romantics took the reigns of literature and put a whole different spin on the way readers think about mankind and human nature. Dark Romanticism was a rejection of Transcendentalism’s sanguine outlook on life. The beliefs of the Transcendentalists were far too confident and narcissistic for Dark Romantics to identify with. The Dark Romantics did not believe that humans had perfection running through their veins at all times. They instead believed that individuals possess the ability to sin. They stressed the fact that no man is perfect. Many Dark Romantics understood that evil and terror lived inside the minds of people. People like Althrope and the delusional narrator from â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart† personify the weakness and paranoia corrupting the thoughts of individuals that seem innocent on the outside. Dark Romantics looked past the beauty of things. They painted the portrait of darkness living in people’s unconscious thoughts. Evil takes shape in many shady and mysterious ways in Dark Romantic poetry and prose. For this reason, the literature of this period can definitely claim its sinister name.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Camping Out by Ernest Hemingway

Camping Out by Ernest Hemingway Before publishing his first major novel, The Sun Also Rises, in 1926, Ernest Hemingway worked as a reporter for the Toronto Daily Star. Though he thought it was unflattering to see his newspaper stuff compared to his fiction, the line between Hemingways factual and fictional writings was often blurred. As William White notes in his introduction to By-line: Ernest Hemingway (1967), he regularly took pieces he first filed with magazines and newspapers and published them with virtually no change in his own books as short stories. Hemingways famously economical style is already on display in this article from June 1920, an instructional piece (developed by process analysis) on setting up camp and cooking outdoors. Camping Out by Ernest Hemingway Thousands of people will go into the bush this summer to cut the high cost of living. A man who gets his two weeks’ salary while he is on vacation should be able to put those two weeks in fishing and camping and be able to save one week’s salary clear. He ought to be able to sleep comfortably every night, to eat well every day and to return to the city rested and in good condition. But if he goes into the woods with a frying pan, an ignorance of black flies and mosquitoes, and a great and abiding lack of knowledge about cookery, the chances are that his return will be very different. He will come back with enough mosquito bites to make the back of his neck look like a relief map of the Caucasus. His digestion will be wrecked after a valiant battle to assimilate half-cooked or charred grub. And he won’t have had a decent night’s sleep while he has been gone. He will solemnly raise his right hand and inform you that he has joined the grand army of never-agains. The call of the wild may be all right, but it’s a dog’s life. He’s heard the call of the tame with both ears. Waiter, bring him an order of milk toast. In the first place, he overlooked the insects. Black flies, no-see-ums, deer flies, gnats and mosquitoes were instituted by the devil to force people to live in cities where he could get at them better. If it weren’t for them everybody would live in the bush and he would be out of work. It was a rather successful invention. But there are lots of dopes that will counteract the pests. The simplest perhaps is oil of citronella. Two bits’ worth of this purchased at any pharmacist’s will be enough to last for two weeks in the worst fly and mosquito-ridden country. Rub a little on the back of your neck, your forehead, and your wrists before you start fishing, and the blacks and skeeters will shun you. The odor of citronella is not offensive to people. It smells like gun oil. But the bugs do hate it. Oil of pennyroyal and eucalyptol are also much hated by mosquitoes, and with citronella, they form the basis for many proprietary preparations. But it is cheaper and better to buy the straight citronella. Put a little on the mosquito netting that covers the front of your pup tent or canoe tent at night, and you won’t be bothered. To be really rested and get any benefit out of a vacation a man must get a good night’s sleep every night. The first requisite for this is to have plenty of cover. It is twice as cold as you expect it will be in the bush four nights out of five, and a good plan is to take just double the bedding that you think you will need. An old quilt that you can wrap up in is as warm as two blankets. Nearly all outdoor writers rhapsodize over the browse bed. It is all right for the man who knows how to make one and has plenty of time. But in a succession of one-night camps on a canoe trip all you need is level ground for your tent floor and you will sleep all right if you have plenty of covers under you. Take twice as much cover as you think that you will need, and then put two-thirds of it under you. You will sleep warm and get your rest. When it is clear weather you don’t need to pitch your tent if you are only stopping for the night. Drive four stakes at the head of your made-up bed and drape your mosquito bar over that, then you can sleep like a log and laugh at the mosquitoes. Outside of insects and bum sleeping the rock that wrecks most camping trips is cooking. The average tyro’s idea of cooking is to fry everything and fry it good and plenty. Now, a frying pan is a most necessary thing to any trip, but you also need the old stew kettle and the folding reflector baker. A pan of fried trout can’t be bettered and they don’t cost any more than ever. But there is a good and bad way of frying them. The beginner puts his trout and his bacon in and over a brightly burning fire; the bacon curls up and dries into a dry tasteless cinder and the trout is burned outside while it is still raw inside. He eats them and it is all right if he is only out for the day and going home to a good meal at night. But if he is going to face more trout and bacon the next morning and other equally well-cooked dishes for the remainder of two weeks he is on the pathway to nervous dyspepsia. The proper way is to cook over coals. Have several cans of Crisco or Cotosuet or one of the vegetable shortenings along that are as good as lard and excellent for all kinds of shortening. Put the bacon in and when it is about half cooked lay the trout in the hot grease, dipping them in cornmeal first. Then put the bacon on top of the trout and it will baste them as it slowly cooks. The coffee can be boiling at the same time and in a smaller skillet pancakes being made that are satisfying the other campers while they are waiting for the trout. With the prepared pancake  flours  you take a cupful of pancake flour and add a cup of water. Mix the water and flour and as soon as the lumps are out it is ready for cooking. Have the skillet hot and keep it well greased. Drop the batter in and as soon as it is done on one side loosen it in the skillet and flip it over. Apple butter, syrup or cinnamon and sugar go well with the cakes. While the crowd  have  taken the edge from their appetites with flapjacks the trout have been cooked and they and the bacon are ready to serve. The trout are crisp outside and firm and pink inside and the bacon is well done- but not too done. If there is anything better than that combination the writer has yet to taste it in a lifetime devoted largely and studiously to eating. The stew kettle will cook your dried apricots when they have resumed their predried plumpness after a night of soaking, it will serve to concoct a mulligan in, and it will cook macaroni. When you are not using it, it should be boiling water for the dishes. In the baker,  mere  man comes into his own, for he can make a pie that to his bush appetite will have it all over the product that mother used to make, like a tent. Men have always believed that there was something mysterious and difficult about making a pie. Here is a great secret. There is nothing to it. We’ve been kidded for years. Any man of average office intelligence can make at least as good a pie as his wife. All there is to a pie is a cup and a half of flour, one-half teaspoonful of salt, one-half cup of lard and cold water. That will make  pie  crust that will bring tears of joy into your camping partner’s eyes. Mix the salt with the flour, work the lard into the flour, make it up into a good workmanlike dough with cold water. Spread some flour on the back of a box or something flat, and pat the dough around a while. Then roll it out with whatever kind of round bottle you prefer. Put a little more lard on the surface of the sheet of dough and then slosh a little flour on and roll it up and then roll it out again with the bottle. Cut out a piece of the rolled out dough big enough to line a pie tin. I like the kind with holes in the bottom. Then put in your dried apples that have soaked all night and been sweetened, or your apricots, or your blueberries, and then take another sheet of the dough and drape it gracefully over the top, soldering it down at the edges with your fingers. Cut a couple of slits in the top dough sheet and prick it a few times with a fork in an artistic manner. Put it in the baker with a good slow fire for forty-five minutes and then take it out and if your pals are Frenchmen they will kiss you. The penalty for knowing how to cook is that the others will make you do all the cooking. It is all right to talk about roughing it in the woods. But the real woodsman is the man who can be really comfortable in the bush. Camping Out by Ernest Hemingway was originally published in the  Toronto Daily Star  on June 26, 1920.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Greek Mythology and Society of Illuminati Article

Greek Mythology and Society of Illuminati - Article Example The Roman Catholic have been actively engaged in the European politics, and have substantial control on the will of the masses, and the constitution of these republics. The civil society was extremely disturbed and annoyed by the continuous involvement and interference of the religious groups in the political and administrative issues of the state. It is this spirit which resulted in rebellious approach by the civil society; the establishment of the society of Illuminati was in actual an attempt to mobilise the masses against monarch. It is important to realise that no association or linkages exist between famous scientists and society of Illuminati. All the linkages described in the history are "part of mythical genealogies with no historical basis". The members of the society of Illuminati were professional lawyers, public officers and liberal clergyman. The teachings of Weishaupt at the forum of Illuminati strongly focused upon version of the Enlightenment philosophy proposed by Immanuel Kant; "Weishaupt ostensibly claimed to be against the continuing reactionary influence of the Jesuits, but not against Roman Catholicism". Mr. Weishaupt shared strong sentiments against "anti-clericalism and anti-Catholicism, and promoted secular humanism and atheism". The destruction of Vatican is myth, and no evidence or document exists to support such claim by the Illuminati.The society of Illuminati was involved in political struggle with religious fervour. The society expressed their deepest concern against the inhumane p olicy and approach under monarchy. The rule of law, the rule of people was the actual ambition of the society of Illuminati. The members of the society intentionally added religious element in this politically motivated propaganda against the monarch to seek and develop trust and support of the local population. The society fabricated, and revealed its affiliation with the certain chapters of history; the society intentionally orchestrated its history to convince people about its long history and secret misconception that the society of Illuminati struggled and supported French Revolution. It is important to identify the actual forces behind French Revolution, "this revolution was the result of a Masonic conspiracy, and that the Illuminati were suspected to be the secret leaders of the French Freemasonry". The Order of Illuminati was conceived after 1780s; therefore practically the society of Illuminati shared no responsibility or role in the French Revolution. It is furt her important to restate that "French Freemasons were quite hostile to the Illuminati, and certainly not prepared to accept the leadership of a German order". Illuminati: Myth or Reality The Order of the Illuminati is a reality; it was established in 1776 at University of Ingolstadt, Germany. The Illuminati was established by Adam Weishaupt, professor of Law. The society evolved and firmly practiced rituals of religious significance; the society focused towards esoteric rituals with certain political desires.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Origins of the Fortune Cookie Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Origins of the Fortune Cookie - Essay Example Increasingly, fortune cookies have been understood as having been introduced by the Japanese, made popular by the Chinese but enjoyed largely by the Americans in the numerous Chinese restaurants in the U.S. all over the world, the cookies are known by their English term â€Å"fortune cookies†.However, there is no consensus on any particular Chinese name for the cookies since the Chinese merely have several literary transitions of the English â€Å"fortune cookie† such as â€Å"good luck lot cookie† or â€Å"fortune words cookie†. Fortune cookies are a major cultural symbol in the American society, inspiring several other products such as fortune-cookie-shaped jewelry and the fortune-cookie-shaped magic 8 ball among others.There are nearly 3 billion fortune cookies manufactured each year, many of which are consumed in the U.S. and the leading manufacturers of the cookies are the Brooklyn-based firm Wonton Food Inc.It is an indubitable fact that America has more Chinese restaurants than McDonald's, Burger King, and Kentucky Fried Chicken outlets, in Lee’s words, which shares insights on the history of Chinese cuisines in the country. In her book, Lee advances the argument that despite popular belief, a vast proportion of what is commonly known as Chinese food is all American and little is known about them back in China.In that respect, it logically follows that common cuisines such as beef with broccoli (an Italian vegetable), egg rolls, General Tso’s chicken, chop suey, and fortune cookies are all American foods.

Microsoft Introduction Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Microsoft Introduction - Research Paper Example Bill Gates was the first president while Paul Allen was the executive vice-president (Nell 12) Microsoft a corporation, like others has goals, vision and mission. The vision of Microsoft is to create accessible innovative technology, which sheds light on its mission which is to make people and businesses all over the word to realize their potential. The company’s main focus is on software products and services where they develop and also license them. Microsoft operating systems is among its products that mainly allow a computer to operate. Microsoft has packaging software called Microsoft Office that is used in an office set up which include word processor and spreadsheet among others (Randall 22). Microsoft has had three C.E.O’s since it was found with Bill Gates as the first one and Steve Ballmer being the second. Sadya Natella is the third and current C.E.O of Microsoft. He has been working with the company for more than two decades and he is famous for pushing vigorous changes in the company’s culture and products. This has led to him having a reputa tion of proven potential and capability of being the C.E.O of a big corporation like Microsoft. The company’s main headquarters is on One Microsoft way, in Redmond, Washington, United States of America. Microsoft has put a lot of effort to make sure most parts of the world are experiencing its availability. Branches of Microsoft are mainly found in the United States of America with its subsidiaries in more than seventeen countries. Some of these countries are France, India, Canada, Nigeria and Peru, which mostly deal with its software and programming industry. Microsoft is estimated to have one hundred and twenty eight thousand employees (128,000). Microsoft has been focusing keenly on expanding its markets in all the continents of the world to keep up with competition in the computing world. There are three subsidiaries that I have chosen for this project and they are Microsoft

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Human Resource Management Case Analysis Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Human Resource Management Analysis - Case Study Example The company needs to work with HR department in implementing changes that will see the company restructure and hence remain relevant in the market. There is need to establish a new communication protocols, enrol the employees to unions and review the penalties given to employees who violate the company policies. PAC Resources Inc. seems to be having major problems as an organization in all its departments. The Human Resource department specifically needs allot to be done in order to bring change to the organization. The HR has not been consistent in its operations with reports of favors and employee manipulation and harassment being reported. The HR has also discouraged its employees from joining any union working with the non-union policy which violates the rights of the employees to join unions and organizations. According to Mikis (2005) as a way of encouraging employees to grow and improve themselves, every company has a mandate to give them a chance to join societies and unions which help in improving their working conditions. The companys disciplinary policy does not have a clear guideline on the consequences and penalties on employees who violate company policies. This has left some of the senior management officers free and immune to any penalties. The use of the open-door policy has its advantages but it is only effective in the departmental level other than the whole organization. PAC Resources Inc encourages all its employees to feel free to enter any office or make contact to the senior level managers without following any protocol. This creates room for disorder within the organization. According to DelPo & Guerin (2013) open door policy can be a challenge to any management as it undermines some of the team leaders and exclusivity of company information. From the email conversations, junior staff has been sending emails trying to get senior

Summary and Impact Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Summary and Impact - Essay Example The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) doubts the claim that e-cigarettes are safe because vapor and smoke are harmful regardless of the way they are consumed. E-cigarettes are new to people; it is the reason why they are treated with interest and attention. I see many people who smoke e-cigarettes during the day. They are massively promoted as a healthy alternative which is 100% safe for people. This study shows that these promiscuous results have not been confirmed yet. After reading this article I believe that e-cigarettes are not as healthy as they are advertised. The only healthy alternative to smoking presupposes that people quit this bad habit forever. If any of my friends decide to try e-cigarettes in order to reduce tobacco consumption, I would warn them that there are no studies to check long-term outcomes or side effects related to this innovation. â€Å"E-Cigarettes: Not a Healthy Alternative to Smoking†. Biology News Net. May 27, 2014. Web. May 28, 2014.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Human Resource Management Case Analysis Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Human Resource Management Analysis - Case Study Example The company needs to work with HR department in implementing changes that will see the company restructure and hence remain relevant in the market. There is need to establish a new communication protocols, enrol the employees to unions and review the penalties given to employees who violate the company policies. PAC Resources Inc. seems to be having major problems as an organization in all its departments. The Human Resource department specifically needs allot to be done in order to bring change to the organization. The HR has not been consistent in its operations with reports of favors and employee manipulation and harassment being reported. The HR has also discouraged its employees from joining any union working with the non-union policy which violates the rights of the employees to join unions and organizations. According to Mikis (2005) as a way of encouraging employees to grow and improve themselves, every company has a mandate to give them a chance to join societies and unions which help in improving their working conditions. The companys disciplinary policy does not have a clear guideline on the consequences and penalties on employees who violate company policies. This has left some of the senior management officers free and immune to any penalties. The use of the open-door policy has its advantages but it is only effective in the departmental level other than the whole organization. PAC Resources Inc encourages all its employees to feel free to enter any office or make contact to the senior level managers without following any protocol. This creates room for disorder within the organization. According to DelPo & Guerin (2013) open door policy can be a challenge to any management as it undermines some of the team leaders and exclusivity of company information. From the email conversations, junior staff has been sending emails trying to get senior

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Surrealism Art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Surrealism Art - Essay Example The essay "Surrealism Art" states the surrealism movement and art. Artists of the 20th century that actively participated in the surrealist movement included but were not limited to Rene Magritte, Man Ray, and Giorgio de Chirico. The surrealist artists invented techniques which tended to portray the mechanisms of dreams, thus emphasizing upon the theory of liberation through their artwork. Giorgio de Chirico is known as the pioneer of surrealist aesthetic. The surrealist artists gained inspiration from his work and attempted to minimize the role of will and consciousness in the artwork. Potential examples of this include Andre Masson’s automatic drawings, Max Ernst’s use of collage and frottage techniques, and raographs made by Man Ray. Thereafter, oneiric images were made by Dali and Magritte by juxtaposing contrasting elements. The first group of the surrealist artists exhibited their artwork in 1925 in Paris. The exhibitions that were subsequently arranged in London and New York in the year 1936 led to the spread and recognition of the surrealist style of art at a larger scale. An exhibition was arranged in 1937 in Tokyo followed by another in Paris in 1938. The surrealist style of art has influenced the American art a lot. For instance, â€Å"the practice of automatism is one basis for Jackson Pollock's work and for Action Painting, while the Surrealists' interest in objects prefigures Pop Art†. Paintings contain familiar objects that are painted in such a way so as to make them appear strange and unknown.

Category Analysis of Sports and Energy Drinks In Hong Kong Essay Example for Free

Category Analysis of Sports and Energy Drinks In Hong Kong Essay Introduction Our company, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd, is planning for a product strategy to its product: Pocari Sweat. Pocari Sweat is a grapefruit-tasting, non-carbonated sweet beverage and is advertised as an â€Å"ion supply drink†. It is designed to increase endurance, replace electrolyte loss or prevent dehydration when exercising for long periods of time. Pocari Sweat is well-recognized by the local people, especially to the athletes. Category Attractiveness Analysis Category Factor The product category we defined is the Sports and Energy Drinks. We gained the first mover advantage when the product was launched at 1980, which we are the market leader which has a off-trade volume of brand share of 43. 8% in 2012 (see Appendix Table 6). The threat of new entrants in this category is low due to the intensive competition, and there is low pressure from substitutes as sports and energy drinks are specialized products. The bargaining power of suppliers is low while the bargaining power of buyers is high. The competition in current market is highly intensive. Details can be referred to the analysis on Category Factors on Attractiveness in Appendix. Overall, this category is still attractive. Aggregate Factor The product life cycle of Sports and Energy Drinks is more likely in mature stage. From the historical figures of whole beverage market, the market size of Sports and Energy Drinks is relatively small. The market growth of off-trade sales volume of this category is increasing constantly by 5. 4% from 2007 to 2012. It will grow constantly in the future by 5% of each year. Since Sports and Energy Drinks are daily commodities for those people after exercising, the sales cyclicity and seasonality is low, as well as the profit variability. Profit level of the market is high. Overall, this category is attractive. Environmental Factor Due to the rise of childhood obesity and the increasing number of cases of cancer, diabetes and heart disease, there are an increasing number of initiatives by both government and non-governmental organizations to promote healthy living and a more balanced lifestyle. The consumer awareness of doing exercises increases and consumers become more willing to engage in sports to keep fit and relieve the stress of their work. Also, there are an increasing number of participations in sports event. Each year, the number of registration of Standard Chartered Hong Kong Marathon increases gradually. Other sports events such as Nike Night Run, New World Harbour Race, and charity runs are also well supported by the local residents. These led to increased consumer awareness of the benefits of sports drinks, result in the increase of purchasing of sports drinks. Competitor Analysis Level of competitions Level of competitions can be divided into Sports Drinks, Sports and Energy Drinks, Beverages and Food. Since the sales volume of Sports Drinks is contributed to 80% (Appendix Table 1) of sales in the Sports and Energy Drinks category, analysis of competition would be focus on the Sports Drinks only. Based on the perceptual map analysis, the closest competitor to Pocari Sweat is Aquarius. Both Pocari Sweat and Aquarius are ion supply drinks with a grapefruit-liked flavour. Aquarius tastes a bit lighter than Pocari Sweat. For Lucozade and Gatorade, the brand images of both are more professional for athletes, with stronger taste in different flavours. Aquarius would be the main competitor for further analysis. In terms of the brand shares of Sports Drinks, Lucozade would also be a main competitor of Pocari Sweat. GlaxoSmithKline, the company of the brand Lucozade, stated that strengthening core business is their strategic concern on 2012. The company objective is having growth in the Sports Drinks market, and they set up a new innovation centre in mainland China. Aquarius, which is a sport drink launched in 2011 by Coca-Cola Company, is highly involved in many race events in Hong Kong. Although there are no Aquarius advertisements in Hong Kong, you can find Aquarius as sponsored sports drinks in local events such as Standard Chartered Marathon Hong Kong. Maintaining growth in the market is also the main objective of Coca-Cola Company in Aquarius. Although Aquarius is a new entrant to the market since 2011, it has about 5% of volume brand shares in the market in two years. With the financial background and the brand image of Coca-Cola Company, it raises the brand awareness of Aquarius by keep involving in the public event, in order to attract the sportsmen to buy their products. Aquarius would be the main competitor in the field of isotonic rehydration sports drink. Conclusion. The Sports and Energy Drinks market is attractive, as the market size is constantly growing, the threat of new entrant is low, the pressure from substitutes is low and the profit variability is low. With the continuous sports and healthy lifestyle promotions by both government and non-government organizations, they will boost up the sales of Sports and Energy Drinks. In the Sports Drinks market, Pocari Sweat is the market leader with 43. 8% of brand shares of total in volume. People prefer buying Pocari Sweat for recovery after exercising comparing with other related products. Aquarius is the closest competitor related to our product. Still, the company has to maintain the brand loyalty and attract more customers by marketing and advertising. Recommendation The company can put more resources on advertising and also target a new market segment: manual labours. Manual labours need to replace electrolyte loss and prevent dehydration while working, especially in the hot seasons. Pocari Sweat would be the best choice for them. Also, the company can invest more on RD to develop a new product which is best suited for the new market segment. Words counted: 934. Reference Euromonitor International 2013, Sports and Energy Drinks in Hong Kong, China, Passport. Euromonitor International 2013, Bottled Water in Hong Kong, China, Passport. Euromonitor International 2013, Carbonates in Hong Kong, China, Passport. Euromonitor International 2012, Consumer Lifestyles in Hong Kong, China, Passport Annual Report 2012, Otsuka Holdings Co. , Ltd. Annual Report 2012, GlaxoSmithKline plc. Annual Report 2012, Swire Pacific Ltd. Supermarket Price Watch. [Online]. Consumer Council. Available: http://www3. consumer. org. hk/pricewatch/supermarket/index. php? filter1=027filter2=006lang=en Erik, P. Sports drinks vs. energy drinks. [Online]. Available: http://www. examiner. com/article/sports-drinks-vs-energy-drinks-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly Appendix Category Factors on Attractiveness Reasons Attractiveness Low Threat of new entrants Current market is competed intensively, and the new entrants are hardly survived in this environment. The capital requirement is high as special formula for sports drinks needs to be developed. High High Bargaining Power of buyers The major buyers are supermarkets (61. 4%) and convenience stores (35%), which they have a higher bargaining power when purchasing a large amount of products. (Appendix Table 3) Low Low Bargaining Power of suppliers The ingredients of the Sports and Energy Drinks can be purchased from different suppliers. The switching cost to other suppliers is low. High High Intensity of Rivalry There are 9 major brands in the current market. (Appendix Table 6) The competition is highly intensive. Low Low Pressure from substitutes Other carbonate drinks or juices do not have the same benefits as sports and energy drinks on performance and recovery during exercising. Bottled water would be the main substitutes of Sports and Energy Drinks. High. Attractiveness of Market Variables Reasons Attractiveness Small Market size Compare with other drinks, the market size of Sports and Energy Drinks is relatively small, only has an off-trade sale volume of 20. 3 million litres in 2012. (Appendix Table 2) Low Constant Market growth Market growth of sales volume increased by about 5. 4% each year from 2007 to 2012, the forecast growth rate of the market is also positive. (Appendix Table 4 5) The market is growing constantly. High Low Sales cyclicity Sports and exercising are daily activities across the year. High Low Sales seasonality. Sports and exercising are daily activities across the year. High Profit level With the benefit of economic of scales and mass production, the profit level is high for Pocari Sweat. High Low Profit variability Sports and exercising are daily activities across the year. High Product Life Cycle Stage Reasons Maturity There are lots of competitors in the Sports and Energy Drinks market. The pricing of the Sports and Energy Drinks is stable among this few years, ranged from $9. 5 – 13. 9, which means that the price is at the edge related to the material costs. (Appendix Table 7) Also, the volume growth of category is about 5. 4% in each year from 2007-2012, which is low to moderate growth of the market. The forecast volume growth of the category has 5% which is quite considerable. Level of competitions Product Form Sports Drinks: Pocari Sweat, Aquarius, Lucozade Sport, Gatorade, Drinkazine Energy Watt and other related â€Å"ion supply drinks† Product Category Sports and Energy Drinks: Including the energy drinks, such as Lucozade Energy, Monster Energy, Red Bull, Libogen Tonic Drink Generic Competition Beverages: Carbonated soft drinks, bottled water, beers, juices, etc. Budget Competition All consumer products with similar price. Current Future Company Strategy Matrix on Sports Drinks Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd GlaxoSmithKline Coca-Cola Company Objectives Grow market share and volume Grow market share and volume Grow market share and volume Current Strategies Advertising and promotion of products. Products expanding in multiple segments of category. Products launching and increased advertising spend. Expected future strategies Focus on product development, increased advertising and promotions. Focus on brand extensions with new flavours to fill category. Focus on raising brand awareness through local sports events.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Orthokinesis In Slaters Relative To Humidity

Orthokinesis In Slaters Relative To Humidity There are many different species slaters and for this experiment I chose to test the Porcellio scaber or more commonly known as the Rough Common Woodlouse. This humidity test links to the slaters ecological niche through examining its preferred habitat which is known to be dark, damp and sheltered areas. The Slaters that I collected for testing, I found under old flat pieces of wood that were on damp soil and leaf litter near the Waikato River. A structural adaption that slaters lack is a waxy cuticle layer that is used in most insects to minimise desiccation therefore they are more likely to dry out. As Slaters lack this adaptation of surviving unfavourable conditions, they use other adaptations to remove themselves from these conditions. For example slaters have an orthokinetic response to humidity and temperature. Orthokinesis is a non directional response of the change in the rate of movement due to a stimulus. This means that the slaters will increase their rate of movement when the humidity or temperature is unfavourable so they move out of that area quicker therefore minimising desiccation. Other adaptations are a negative phototaxis which means that they move out of areas that have higher light intensities so that they can minimise desiccation. Slaters are also found clumping together to avoid water loss. The adaptations of slaters are shown in there ecological niche of dark, cool and damp environments. Though knowing their ecological niche I am going to test how different humiditys affect the rate of orthokinesis in slaters so I can determine their preferred humidity. Aim: The aim for this investigation is to determine whether orthokinesis (speed of movement) in Slaters is affected by increasing or decreasing humidity percentages in their test environment. Hypothesis: I think that the lower the humidity the faster the Slaters will travel as it will want to quickly return to an environment that has a higher humidity percentage. While when a Slater is in a high humidity environment the Slater will slow down or completely stop as it would have found a favourable environment. Therefore I think the Slater will move fastest when humidity is 12.5% (LiCl) and will stop moving when humidity is 93.5% (KNOà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã†â€™). Null Hypothesis: Different humidity percentages will have not affect on the rate of movement in Slaters. Controlled Variables: Experiment is conducted in the same room and the same place on that room. (Middle desk of the project room) Lights are off in all experiments so change of light intensity cannot cause a difference in the rate of movement. Blinds are shut so no change in light intensity from natural light. Air conditioner kept at 20 °C so change in temperature cannot be the cause for change in rate of movement. Wait 5 minutes for humidity percentage to change to the required humidity that will be created from each chemical so that Slaters have time to become accustomed to their new environment and respond how they naturally would. Use a random selection of Slaters so a random part of the population is being tested and the experiment is relevant to the population. Repeat test of each chemical / Humidity percentage 5 times in each trail and do 3 trials to give a fair test and make sure that the selection of data is large enough to accurately portray the population. Place clear, heavy, plate piece of glass or other heavy clear material on the Petri dish. This holds the experiment in place and stops the humidity from being altered due to incoming or outgoing air into the surrounding environment. Method: Collect all the equipment. 75 Slaters; stored in an ice-cream container with damp soil, bark and raw potato for food. (Collect Slaters 2 days before experiment to allow Slaters to settle into their new environment). The chemicals LiCl, MgCl, Mg(NOà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã†â€™)à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¡, NaCl and KNOà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã†â€™ which will be used to alter the humidity in the experiment to determine whether it is a stimulus that will affect orthokinesis. 5 Petri dishes. (Plus spare to balance glass sheet) 5 pieces of gauze or other breathable material. Stop watch. Ball of string. White board marker. Sheet of glass or clear plastic. 25 mL measuring cylinder. Set the air conditioner at 20 °C; close the doors, windows, shut the blinds and turn off the lights (this will insure the environment will be the same in all the experiments except for the humidity and that no other stimulus will affect the validity of the results). By setting the temperature at 20 °C it will cause the chemicals to produce the already proved humidity. LiCl- 12.5% humidity MgCl 33% humidity Mg(NOà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã†â€™)à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ 52.9% humidity NaCl 76% humidity KNOà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã†â€™ 93.5% humidity And wait 5 minutes to allow the temperature in the room to reach or drop to 20 °C. Starting with LiCl, add 15 mL of LiCl into a Petri dish (by measuring with a 25 mL measuring cylinder) which will create a humidity of 12.5% in the test environment. Place a piece of gauze (or other breathable material) over the Petri dish but be careful that the gauze doesnt touch the chemical (LiCl) as the Slaters cannot touch it as it would result in injury to the Slaters and it would affect their orthokinesis and the results would be invalid. Place a randomly selected Slater from the ice-cream container on the gauze, place the lid on the Petri dish and place the glass or plastic sheet on the top of the Petri dish balancing it on both sides by putting other unused Petri dishes under the glass as well. This will keep pressure on the Petri dish so humidity cannot escape through gaps between the lid and dish. If it were to escape it would make results invalid as humidity wouldnt be accurate. Wait 5 minutes ( timing on the stop watch) to allow the LiCl (the chemical) to reach the already identified humidity percentage by causing a reaction that makes Hà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¡O either move into or out of the chemical which alters the water content in the air of the environment. This waiting period also allows the Slater to have time to settle into the new environment and take in the humidity. This stops fear and a still changing humidity from influencing the rate of movement and causing the results to be invalid. After waiting 5 minutes, time another minute on the stopwatch and during this time follow the path of the Slater with a whiteboard pen drawing on the glass. Stop tracing when the minute is up. Take off the glass sheet without smudging the whiteboard pen tracings and remove the Slater from the Petri dish and place it into another ice cream container with soil, bark and food so that the Slater doesnt get mixed up with the Slaters still to be tested. Place the lid back on the Petri dish as quickly as possible. Lay a length of string along the whiteboard marker line from the start to the end. Get as exact as possible and mark on the string where the whiteboard marker starts and ends. Take the marked string and lay it flat on the table and measure between the two marked points to find the distance that the Slater travelled. Record data in a data table. Sub the distance into the formula v=d/t (speed equals distance that the Slater travelled divided by the time taken to travel it). This formula will give you the average speed of the Slater during this test and therefore the orthokinesis of the Slater. Use 60 seconds as your measurement of the time taken because the measurement of distance was taken over 1 minute. Remove the whiteboard marker from the glass sheet with a clean cloth. Repeat steps 2 9 four more times using LiCl, until you have 5 travelling distances of Slaters under the humidity created by LiCl. This data will create unbiased results once the 5 pieces of data is averaged. Repeat steps 2 11 using the different chemicals (MgCl, Mg(NOà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã†â€™)à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¡, NaCl, KNOà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã†â€™) using a separate Petri dish for each chemical, this will give data of different speeds of Slaters under the different humiditys. This will give you data that will allow you to compare and contrast speeds relative to the humidity. Record all data in a data table. Steps 1 11 are classified as 1 trail. Do at least 3 different trail so that a large proportion of the population is accounted for in the data. Data and Graphs: 12.5% 33% 52.9% 76% 93.5% 1 2.5% Conclusion: The data that I have collected supports my hypothesis that the lower the humidity the faster that the slaters travel, while, when the humidity is high, the slaters will have a slower rate of movement. The scatter graph shows that at 76% and 93.5% humidity slaters travelled significantly slower than at 33% and 52.9% humidity. However at the extreme humiditys of 12.5% and 93.5% humidity I found that my hypothesis was incorrect as the results didnt support my assumption that 93.5% humidity would cause the slaters to stop moving while 12.5% humidity would cause the fastest rate of orthokinesis. The graph shows that 12.5% humidity had a slower rate of movement than 33% humidity and that 93.5% humidity had a faster rate of movement than 76% humidity. The best fit curve show that the rate of movement increases as the humidity moved either side of the preferred humidity. This experiment also proves that humidity has an effect on orthokinesis in slaters and therefore the null hypothesis is in correct. Discussion: I designed and completed this experiment to discover whether or not different humiditys will affect the rate of orthokinesis in Slaters. Through my data I found that humidity does affect orthokinesis in Slaters. When the humidity was at 76% the Slaters moved at their slowest therefore showing that Slaters are at their preferred humidity; they are moving at a slower rate as they dont need to move away quickly as they are already in favourable conditions. At both 33% and 52.9% humidity the Slaters moved significantly faster than they did at the preferred humidity of 76%. This presents the idea of unfavourable conditions as they are travelling faster and therefore wasting energy in order to spend less time in these conditions, and by moving away they are less likely to suffer from desiccation. Slaters are extremely sensitive to desiccation and dont possess many structural adaptations to protect themselves from desiccation. Unlike most insects, Slaters lack a waxy cuticle layer, this layer helps to prevent drying out as it minimises evaporation of water from the exoskeleton. Therefore they rely on their orthokinetic response to remove themselves from areas that cause desiccation by speeding up their rate of activity. This reaction makes it more likely that they will move out of the unfavourable conditions quickly so they spend less time in an area that can cause desiccation and death. At 12.5% humidity Slaters travelled slower than when they were at 33% humidity even though it is a more unfavourable condition. The 12.5% humidity at 20 °C has more drying power that 33% humidity at 20 °C so therefore desiccation will being to occur earlier at 12.5% humidity when compared with 33% humidity. The earlier desiccation means that the Slaters cannot physically travel at increased speeds as the desiccation causes problems with the Slaters respiration. The Slaters transport oxygen using pseudo trachea which are small hollow air tubes which carry the oxygen to the Haemolymph. Moisture is needed in the pseudo trachea to dissolve the oxygen and allow it to diffuse into the Haemolymph. Without the moisture the oxygen cannot dissolve and therefore cannot enter the Slaters body for it to use and without oxygen the Slater will die. The Slaters orthokinetic response at 12.5% humidity is to increase its rate of activity in order to get out of those conditions. This is w hat causes the increase of speed compared to the speed of Slaters at the preferred humidity. However because of the early desiccation, the Slaters activity rate is limited because of restricted respiration therefore the speed of the Slaters at 12.5% is less than the speed of the Slaters at 33%. While at 93.5% humidity although the rate of orthokinesis was similar with that or 76% humidity Slaters still moved slightly faster at 93.5% humidity. This is because 93.5% humidity the conditions are not completely favourable as the humidity is so high that it causes the Slaters to become overloaded with water. This effect can also be seen when Slaters leave their shelters after heavy rain as they need to transpire the water that they have taken on. When a Slater takes on too much water they cannot respire properly as the distance that the oxygen needs to diffuse becomes too long therefore the Slater doesnt receive the necessary oxygen that it needs to function this will result in the drowning and death of the Slater. This is why when at 93.5% the rate of movement of Slaters increase from the speed of Slaters at the preferred humidity of 76% even though it is only a slight increase in the rate of movement as the 93.5% humidity is only slightly more unfavourable than 76% humidity. Evaluation: The results of my tests, which have been place in the scatter graph above show that there is a significant relationship between humidity and the rate of orthokinesis in slaters. As the r ² value is 0.9703 it can be seen that 97% of my datas variation can be contributed to the change in humidity rather than any other variable. This means that my conclusion is valid. During my experiment I had to control many variables so that my results were valid and to prove that the change in the rate of orthokinesis was due to the change in humidity and not due to another variable. For example through my research I found that Slaters are nocturnal animals and that light intensity can also affect their rate of orthokinesis; Because of this, when I did my testing I closed all the blinds and turned off all the lights. By creating this environment I replicated the time period (night) in which Slaters are most active so that I could see significant differences in their rate of movement. By turning off all the lights and closing the blinds I also eliminated another variable that is known to change the rate of movement in Slaters. This meant that my results were valid as I insured that my data wasnt a result of changes in light intensity but was due to the change in humidity. I set the air conditioner at 20 °C during all my experiments as change in temperature is also a variable that can affect the rate of orthokinesis. By having the temperature the same though all my experiment I eliminated it as a changing variable and once again insured that changes in the speed of Slaters was due to change of humidity and not another variable. Another reason that I set the air conditioner to 20 °C is because that the chemicals I used required that temperature in order to react and produce the predetermined humidity. Drying power of humiditys also can change due different temperatures. For example the drying power of 33% humidity at 20 °C can be different to the drying power of 33% humidity at 30 °C which could affect the rate of desiccation in Slaters and therefore affect the data on the rate of movement. So by keeping the same temperature in all experiments I made sure that the data was valid and not a result of different drying powers due to different temperatures. By allowing timing before each testing it meant that the Slaters werent out of their comfort zone and by the time it came to testing the results were based on the Slaters natural response to the change in humidity and not by the fact that they were under stressful conditions. Also by taking a large sample size and repeating the test numerous times through different trials I made sure that the data I collected was an accurate representation of the populations reactions to changes in humidity and how it affects their rate of movement. The large random sample size means that the results were not based on one type of Slaters change in rate of movement; for example the change in rate of movement in old Slaters. Therefore by having a random selection of Slaters I was incorporating all types of Slaters so the data I collect was an accurate response of the populations change in the rate of movement relative to change in humidity. The repeat trials also meant that my results could be conclusi ve and when I came across an outlier that would have disrupted my results I would have be able to successful recognise any significant outliers and retest them to use in my average. Because I controlled these variables, my data and conclusion must be valid as the only stimulus left that could have affected orthokinesis is humidity.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

herody Free Essay on Homers Odyssey - Odysseus and the Mind of a Hero :: Homer, Odyssey Essays

The Mind of a Hero The ‘American Heritage High-school’ dictionary defines a hero as a man, often of divine ancestry, who is endowed with great courage and strength. Is that what a hero truly is? Does he need only strength and courage? Does a hero not need a mind? Any man can be strong and brave, but does that mean he is a hero? Nay, a hero must have more. He must be quick-witted and always think with his head and never his fear. A man must be clever (mentally bright, superficially skillful or witty) to be considered a hero. A hero has many characteristics but one of the most important is to be able to think his way out of trouble. Not that a hero shouldn’t be physically strong, that’s always good, but sometimes you can’t fight your way out things without getting yourself killed. Odysseus, king of Ithaca, is a very clever man. He shows that quality time and again in ‘The Odyssey’. For example, the Trojan War. The Greeks fought with the Trojans for ten years without success. They had to get over the wall around Troy. No one had any ideas. But then Odysseus and his clever mind thought of a way to trick the Trojans. He ordered the Greeks to build a huge wooden horse in which they could hide. Odysseus figured that when the Trojans wake up to the horse and no Greeks in sight that they’d take the horse as a peace offering and take it inside the city. The Trojans did as Odysseus had guessed and after ten long years the war with Troy was finally over. Another example of Odysseus’ cleverness is when he met a giant, one-eyed monster named Polyphemus. Odysseus and his men went into this giants’ cave and stayed to meet him. What they saw when Polyphemus came home was a huge surprise. Polyphemus liked humans, yes he did. He liked them as dinner, lunch, and breakfast. Odysseus was losing his men rapidly while they were trapped in the cave. He had to do something. Suddenly an idea popped in his head. He and his men sharpened a stick, and shoved it into Polyphemus’ eye while he was sleeping. Plus, when Polyphemus called for help, nobody listened because Odysseus had told him that his name was ‘Nohbdy’. If that doesn’t take a clever mind then I don’t know what dose.

Friday, October 11, 2019

The Biology of Wetlands

The term â€Å"wetlands† is often associated with the image of the coastal marsh – a muddy area that is teeming with a variety of animal life and emergent vegetation such as mangroves, rush and cord-grass. But wetlands are actually areas that are characterized by the formation of hydric soils and the existence of flora and fauna due to the presence of standing water during all or part of the year (Spray and McGlothlin, xiii). Some wetlands cover hundreds or thousands of square kilometers and are therefore homes to a wide variety of plant and animal life.General Biology Ii Study Guide (Online Class) Examples of wetlands include the Florida Everglades, the Hudson Bay Lowlands, the Mekong Delta and the Danube Delta (Van der Walk, 1). At present, there is no universal classification scheme for wetlands. However, wetlands are usually categorized according to their hydrologic flow regimes, vegetation types and hydrogeomorphology. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for instance, classifies wetlands according to four major types – marshes, swamps, bogs and fens. This basic but simplified scheme was intended to â€Å"(promote) understanding (of) the diversity of wetland ecosystems† (Spray and McGlothlin, xiv). Marshes are regions whose soil is either periodically or continually inundated with water. Mashes are classified into two types – tidal and non-tidal. Tidal marshes are found in areas that have erratic soil moisture due to ocean tides but do not experience heavy wave action. Tidal marshes can be freshwater, brackish or saline. Non-tidal marshes, on the other hand, are freshwater or brackish marshes that undergo episodes of drought (Spray and McGlothlin, xiv). Swamps are wetlands that are characterized by saturated soils during the growing season and standing water at other times of the year. Consequently, swamps are home to many species of plants and animals. The Great Dismal Swamp, a 109-acre forested wetland situated between northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, is dominated by bald cypress, tupelo, red maple and black gum. It is likewise the habitat of animals like the white-tailed deer, river otter, bats, raccoons, mink, black bear, bobcat, snakes, turtles and at least 200 bird species (Spray and McGlothlin, xv). Unlike marshes and swamps, bogs are wetlands that possess various types of soil and vegetation. Some of the substances found in bogs are peat deposits, acidic water and sphagnum moss. Furthermore, bogs derive their hydration mostly from precipitation instead of from groundwater, streams or runoff – they are therefore sometimes referred to as precipitation-dominated wetlands. Examples of bogs include pocosins (evergreen-shrub bogs located in the southeastern United States) and northern bogs (found in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the United States) (Spray and McGlothlin, xv). Akin to bogs, fens are wetlands known for their peat deposits. What differentiates fens from bogs, however, is that the former receive their water supply from groundwater inputs instead of from precipitation. Furthermore, fens have less acidic water and higher nutrient levels than bogs (Spray and McGlothlin, xv). Wetlands play many important roles in preserving the Earth’s ecosystem. Scientists refer to wetlands as the â€Å"kidneys of the Earth† – they filter the water that moves through them of pollutants such as toxins and organic and inorganic nutrients. Wetlands therefore have high levels of sediment-water exchange and mineral uptake, which, in turn, render it suitable for plant and animal life. Wetlands likewise acquire sediments and particles by decreasing the flow velocity of the running water which enters them (Spray and McGlothlin, xvi). Other functions of wetlands include providing flood control, preventing coastal erosion and serving as a critically important habitat for plants and many endangered species. As of 2000, wetlands made up about 3. 5% of the land area of the United States and were the primary habitat of around 50% of the 209 animal species that were listed as endangered 1986. Scientists and environmentalists thus argue that the preservation of wetlands is crucial for environmental health – wetland ecosystems are neither artificially created nor easily regenerated (Spray and McGlothlin, xvi). Wetlands are home to many species of plants – the former are sometimes classified according to the types of hydrophytes present in them. There are three kinds of hydrophytes – submersed, emergent and obligate. Submersed refers to plant species that are completely submerged. Emergent (also known as terrestrial) is identified with plants whose stems and roots are found underwater, but reaches to or above the surface. Obligate (also known as facultative) pertains to plants that thrive both in wetlands and in certain upland habitats (Dennison and Berry, 57). Wetland plants play a key role in the survival of wetland ecosystems. Most wetland animals, as well as many non-wetland ones, depend on wetland plants as their primary food source. Wetland plants also assist in the thermoregulation of many wetland animals and provide cover from predators. When wetland plants undergo decomposition by fungi and bacteria, they immediately become a source of nutrients for animals and other wetland plants (Dennison and Berry, 59). Wetland plants, specifically seed-producing ones, are very important in the regeneration of wetlands after periods of drawdown and drying. Read also Lab 2 Biology Other groups of organisms that inhabit wetlands, such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are also crucial for the survival of wetland ecosystems. Apart from making nutrients available to other organisms by decomposing dead plant and animal material, they likewise enable wetlands to survive certain weather and climatic conditions. The blue-green algae, for instance, may form a â€Å"periphyton† mat which has the capacity to withstand prolonged periods of drought. Consequently, the presence of a periphyton layer is considered as a possible sign that an area is a wetland (Dennison and Berry, 60). During the winter, many wetlands are transformed into valuable wildlife habitats. Evergreen forested wetlands (cedar swamps), for example, are the winter homes of deer and moose. Black ducks live in northeastern coastal marshes during the winter, while other waterfowl consider bottomland hardwood swamps as their winter refuge. In the Upper Midwest, migratory waterfowl start arriving in pothole wetlands even before winter starts. Male red-winged blackbirds are among the first migratory birds that return to freshwater marshes in the Northeast for the winter (Tiner, 28). In the winter and early spring, floodplain forested wetlands become important fish habitats. During these seasons, various fish species use the flooded wetlands either as spawning areas or nursery grounds. Some amphibians, however, start breeding in vernal pool wetlands in the northeastern United States even before winter begins. At the start of the year, the Jefferson salamander is the first amphibian to breed in vernal pools. According to animal experts, it â€Å"migrates over the snow on rainy nights in late winter to slip into the pond (vernal pool) through cracks in the ice† (Tiner, 28). But there is likewise significant breeding activity even before the start of winter. Marbled salamanders, for instance, migrate to dry vernal pools in the Northeast from late August to October. Males leave sperm sacks at the bottom of the pools for the females to fertilize their eggs with when they later arrive. The fertilized eggs are then left beneath leaf litter or rocks in the pool. The eggs hatch in the fall, with the larvae feeding on aquatic invertebrates (Tiner, 28). The pitcher-plant bog crayfish is another animal species which share the same type of life history requirement. They are active from late fall to late spring – periods when Mississippi’s pitcher-plant bogs are flooded. Pitcher-plant bog crayfishes begin to mate in the late spring, with the females retaining the fertilized eggs before depositing them in the flooded bogs in the winter (Tiner, 28). Apart from the suitability of breeding sites, other factors that control the distribution of animals within wetlands include the level of protection from predators, the speed of travel within a certain area and the availability of particular food sources (Galatowitsch and Van der Valk, 19). Some wetland animals thrive in most wetland habitants. Examples of these are the tiger salamanders, American toads, painted turtles and snapping turtles. This flexibility is required in order to meet changing requirements over their life cycles (Galatowitsch and Van der Valk, 20). Some animals, however, require very specific environments for feeding or nesting. Wet prairies, for instance, have tall and dense grass vegetation. In addition, they thaw and dry up earlier than deeper wetlands. Consequently, wet prairies are characterized by an abundant food supply and a grass cover that provides excellent protection against predators. Birds that live in wet prairies include ground-nesting birds like the northern harrier, short-eared owl, savannah sparrow, swamp sparrow and the common yellowthroat. The short-tailed shrew and the Franklin’s ground squirrel, meanwhile, are some examples of the mammals that live in wet prairies (Galatowitsch and Van der Valk, 20). Sedge meadows thaw early and remain moist even in summer, turning it into another early source of food and protection. Large sedges and grasses provide a close canopy but an open understory, allowing animals to move about more freely while keeping them protected from predatory birds (Galatowitsch and Van der Valk, 20). The aforementioned wet prairie birds can also nest in sedge meadows, along with other birds such as American bittern, common snipe, sedge wren, marsh wren and LeConte’s sparrow (Galatowitsch and Van der Valk, 21). Other mammals are likewise drawn to sedge meadows because of the latter’s reliable invertebrate populations. The masked shrews and the pygmy shrews, for instance, feed on plants and seeds that inhabit sedge meadows. Meadow voles, on the other hand, can be found on the moist parts of the meadow due to their diet of rushes, sedges, grasses, insect larvae and fungi. Meadow jumping mice have a diet that adapts to seasonal changes – invertebrates in the spring and seeds, fruits and fungi during the summer. Although chorus frogs thrive in different wetland habitats, they breed only in those with a lush growth of lushes, sedges and grasses – the vegetation effectively conceals their mating call against predators (Galatowitsch and Van der Valk, 21). Shallow emergent marshes are characterized by dense vegetation and prolonged standing water. As a result, they provide effective concealment and reliable source of food. Shallow emergent marshes are inhabited mostly by birds that build nests that are either floating on water or are anchored on emergent vegetation. The horned grebe, eared grebe, least bittern, Virginia rail and American coot are some examples of birds that inhabit shallow emergent marshes (Galatowitsch and Van der Valk, 21). It is often said that everything in this planet is interconnected. A seemingly â€Å"useless† insect may actually turn out to be an important cross-pollinator. A huge, leafy but fruitless tree might be the only source of food for animals in the forest during the summer season. A bacterium living in the ocean could have the capacity to filter the latter of pollutants. Thus, it is very important that wetlands be preserved. Although they may appear to be large mud puddles with lush vegetation, wetlands are in truth home to various organisms that depend on each other to sustain life on this planet. The extinction of wetlands, therefore, will spell the end of many plants and animals on which humans are dependent on for survival.

U.S Economy Cause and Effect

Essay #2 cause and effect essay. (1084) Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Â   Ben Soloviev As America is going through economical disfunction's, Â  it is apparent that many people fear for losing their job because in such a depression it would make it impossible to be well off comfortably due to the demand of money needed for all the basic essentials especially in Orange County. Orange County happens the be one of the more expensive areas in the state and it is crucial to always have a steady income as life here is not cheap but well worth it.Many Americans are in search for work and are struggling to make a living. As the job hunting goes on, many job opportunities are overseen to due to programs such unemployment. The percentage of unemployment has sky rocketed over the past few years leaving it up to us, tax payers with job to pay for such needs. Unemployment is not fair for all, most people would say. There are a percentage of people who trul y have no other choice of surviving unless they depend on this crucial unemployment program.Although unemployment is crucial for some, it is not necessary for a portion of the people due to the simple fact that they are not trying hard enough to seek new job opportunities. Instead they a letting opportunities slide right past them every single day they are not looking for work. Many people depend on unemployment alone, because most people would prefer to get paid for doing nothing while they have the chance too. Many people take advantage of this privilege and only it do they follow.A huge downfall due to unemployment for us people with a steady income and a consistent employment is the fact that we have to pay for the unemployed. Hardworking people work to support themselves also end up paying taxes which a percentage of that goes to the unemployed. By increasing our taxes the government collects money all around. This dramatically decreases the standard of living for us citizens. Although unemployment has it's pros and is a huge opportunity for people in struggles or going through loss of unemployment.It also puts a major dependability on hard working citizens who are forced to pay high taxes which a certain percentage are collected to pay for the unemployed. Many people abuse unemployment for as long as they can and only pretend to seek work but instead just prefer to do nothing but make something which not only is unfair but also not right. Unemployment not only affects certain individuals but it also puts a decrease on the standard of living here in the United states which affects everybody around us.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

“Sleep Improves Memory: the Effect of Sleep on Long

Journal Article Critique of â€Å"Sleep Improves Memory: The Effect of Sleep on Long Term Memory in Early Adolescence† Comprehension Purpose The Purpose of â€Å"Sleep Improves Memory: The Effect of Sleep on Long Term Memory in Early Adolescence† by Katya Trudeau Potkin, Willsiam E. Bunney, JR was to assign the selected students to sleep and no sleep conditions and compare tested results about adolescents on how getting sleep and not enough sleep could affect the memory. The results were an increase of 20. % in long-term memory (Figure 1) was found as measured by the number correct in the paired-associate test following sleep, compared to the groups which was tested at the same time interval, but without sleep. Results/Conclusion The study showed that older adults performance did not improve following sleep. Sleep dependent memory consolidation decreases with age. Lack of sleep can cause the subject to not be able to reach his or her full potential on â€Å"cognitive p erformance† which was not observed in the sample (4). Analysis and EvaluationStrengths One of the strengths was that the groups tested were divided into two groups, â€Å"Twenty females and twenty male adolescents† (1). I feel that it was evenly distributed to find out if it affected male or female differently. Each subject had a better experience of testing with the comfort of his or her home and was able to eat a good meal before testing. Subjects were asked about how good of nights rest did they get and most of the answers were good to very good which made the testing a little bit more accurate.The students were also given the test over the weekends and school breaks inside a quiet room, away from all distractions. The sleep group’s mean age was 12. 9 compared to 12. 4 for the non-sleep group (t= (1. 52), df (1,38), p =0. 14). (See Table 1 for demographic characteristics and performance scores). There was no statistically significant sex difference in performa nce for either task (2). The test used to test memory on the subjects is called the paired-associate test. This test is the standard way to monitor memory. The memory is measured by using this scale (2).The results that were given were compared to another outside study group and after comparing the two, the outcomes were consistent. The studies showed that it didn’t matter what time of day, but periods of sleep helped enhance the declarative memory. Taking a nap at different times of the day is just as good as getting a full nights rest, not saying that its better than a full nights rest but it helps to build and repair memory. Weaknesses The author stated that â€Å"It is important to have data on the effects of normal sleep† (4). There are so many different types of sleep disorders that can keep someone from getting a good night’s rest.One paragraph states â€Å"Sleep disorders are even more prevalent in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and developmenta l disabilities† (4). Twenty five to forty percent of adolescents have sleep disorders. It’s very important to get data on the effects of normal sleep. There are consequences from having lack of sleep and bad sleep patterns, none of these things were talked about in the studies of the subjects. All of the subjects that were chosen were healthy and didn’t have any health issues. If there were to be someone with these issues, then the numbers would be different.Some other studies of sleep that effects other types of memory wasn’t used in this article, for example visual, procedural and emotional memory. The chart used in this article is very hard to understand but this is the standard chart to use for documenting memory. This chart is hard to understand when looked at for the first time; it just looks like numbers on a page. Another issue that I had with the article is the studies ended with using adolescents. Synthesis and Evaluation One of the major changes that I feel should be done is to create a longer sample. One paragraph stated â€Å"Our study was limited as the sample was pportune† (4). There were a lot of sources that could have been used but wasn’t. Memory would be more understandable if there were more included. People with sleep disorders could have been included to show how that affects memory. Another thing that could help understand memory is if adults, middle age and the elderly were used. The older you get, your memory starts to taper off and remains the same then it declines as you grow even older. Memory is at its greatest when you are an adolescent and memory is at its worse when you are elderly. Alzheimer is a big factor when dealing with the elderly.The mind can deteriorate if rest is needed over a long time period. If the body continues to go without rest over the years then it will be hard for the mind to repair itself. This topic would have been something to help us understand memory as we age. I would have added a formula to the chart to show how the numbers come about. The bar graph was something good as a visual but how did we get those numbers? I would have shown step by step process on how to make these calculations. The research results were compared to another study from an outside source, on the same subject and the outcomes matched.We can’t come to conclusion that these answers are right because it is simply not enough information to say these results are true. I think that if the results were compared to even more outside sources to see how the results compare would give us a wider range and more accurate results. These are just a few ways that I think would have made this article stronger and better to understand. Works Cited Potkin KT, Bunney WE Jr. â€Å"Sleep Improves Memory: The Effect of Sleep on Longterm Memory in Early Adolescents†. Plos one 7. 8 (August 2012): 1-4. Academic Search Complete PsycINFO. EBSCO. Wake Technical Community College, Ra leigh, NC. 28 Feb 2013